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13 Cards in this Set

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Objective goals
o Focus on attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually within a specified time
 “I want to lose 10 lbs in 3 months)
Subjective goals
o General statements of intent
 “I want to do well”
Three types of goals
Outcome
Performance
Process
Outcome goals
 Focus on a result
• Want to score more points than my opponent
• Want to win the championship
Performance goals
 Focus on achieving standards or performance objectives
 Independent of other competitors
 Based on athletes’ own previous performance
 Example
• Pitcher wants to strike out 5 batters in a row
• Runner wants to run a mile in 6 min
 Athletes should prefer performance goals over outcome
• If achieve performance, many times they achieve outcome goals anyway
Process goals
 The actions that an athlete must engage in during performance to execute a task or perform well
 Examples
• Golfer must keep left arm straight while swinging
How goal-setting improves competitive performance
o Helps athlete direct attention and focus on actions
o Mobilizes athletic effort
o Persistence
o Promoting the development of new learning strategies
 Once an athlete achieves one goal, will encourage the athlete to pursue another goal
How to have an athlete set goals
o Goals must be
 Specific
• Focuses exactly on the goal to be achieved
 Measurable
• Can be quantified sot the athlete knows how close they are
 Observable
o Realistic
 Cannot be too difficult or easy
o Clearly identify time constraint
o Set short-term goals as well as long-term goals
 Should be linked together to create a progression of goals
o Set appropriate performance, process, and outcome goals
 For every outcome goal, there should be several process and performance goals
o Help the athlete set practice goals
 Athletes spend more time in practice than in actual game play
o Have the athlete learn how to record their goals in a training log, and monitor results
 See if the athlete is making favorable progress
o Always involve the athlete
Problems in goal setting
o Goals may be poorly-written
 Too vague
• “I want to be a better golfer”
o Setting goals without setting a plan to achieve the goal
o Athlete’s failure to follow the goal-setting plan
o Non-realistic goals
 Too easy or too difficult
o Athlete only sets outcome goals
o There’s been a change in circumstances
 Injury
 So must be ready to change/fine-tune goals along the way
o Athlete wants to set way too many goals
What to use in the goal-setting program
o Think about the specific sport
o Assess the abilities and needs of the athlete
o Make sure the goals are tied to specific and realistic strategies
o Before practice, meet with your athletes to discuss their various goals
Direct mechanistic view
o More researched than indirect thought-process view
o Goals influence performance in one of four direct ways
 Goals direct attention to important elements of the skill being performed
 Goals mobilize performer efforts
 Goals prolong performer persistence
 Goals foster the development of new learning strategies
Indirect thought-process view
o Goals lead to changes in psychological factors which then influence performance
o Outcome, performance, and process goals influence behavior indirectly by affecting important psychological factors such as confidence and anxiety
Practice goals
important to set because athletes spend more time practicing than competing