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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
spinal meninges
dura matar, arachnoid, pia mater.
spinal dura mater
only one layer; outermost of the three spinal meninges; tough and fibrous
arachnoid mater
middle spinal meninge
pia mater
innermost spinal meninge; adheres to surface of spinal cord
Location of spinal cord in reference to vertebrae
Foramen magnum in base of skull to L1/L2
Spinal cord enlargements
cervical and lumbar
conus medullaris
point where spinal cord ends; cone-shaped terminal portion
filum terminal
extends from conus medullaris (end of spinal cord) to saccrum; fibrous connctive tissue that anchors spinal cord to coccyx bone.
cauda equina
"horse's tail"; the caudal extension of filum terminal along with long ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord which extend to the lower extremities and trunk.
anterior median fissure
deep crease along ventral surface of the spinal cord
posterior median sulcus
shallow longitudinal groove on dorsal surface of the spinal cord (spine side, not very obvious)
3 somatosensory tracts
Dorsal Column Pathway
Lateral Spinothalamic Pathway
Dorsal Spinocerebellar Pathway
fasciculus gracilis
dorsal column spinal tract from lower extremities and trunk to nucleus gracilis in medulla
fasciculus cuneatus
dorsal column spinal tract from upper limbs/trunk to nucleus cuneatus in medulla
Dorsal Column Pathway: what it conveys
touch, pressure, tactile discrimination and joint movement (proprioceptive); position of a joint in space, during movement.
Dorsal Column Pathway
1. Sense perception in extremity or trunk enters spinal cord via dorsal root, enters gracilis or cuneatus.
2. Impulse runs up Dorsal Spinal column tract to medulla oblongata to synapse with 2nd neuron in nucleus gracilis/cuneatus.
3. 2nd neuron exits medulla via medial lemniscus pathway during which the tract crosses over to the contralateral side, then synapse on 3rd neuron in Ventral PosteroLateral nucleus of Thalamus.
4. VPL 3rd neuron projects to layer 4 of the somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus of the cerebellar neocortex.
What Lateral Spinothalamic tract conveys
Pain and Temperature
Lateral Spinothalamic tract
1. Sensory info enters dorsal root of spinal cord, immediately crosses to contralateral side to synapse with 2nd neuron in dorsal horn of that side.
2. Impulse continues up lateral Spinothalamic tract to thalamus to synapse with 3rd neuron.
3. 3rd neuron in thalamus projects to layer 4 in primary sensory cortex in cerebral postcentral gyrus
What info Dorsal Spinocerebellar Tract conveys
proprioceptive info about joint position in space to the cerebellum, so that it can immediately and continuously be sending corrective info to the motor pathway so that limb stays on target with high fidelity
dorsal spinocerebellar tract pathway
1. Sensory info enters dorsal root into spinal cord.
2. Immediately curves to the dorsal horn of the SAME side (ipsilateral) and shoots to cerebellum.
2-neuron pathway; no crossover.
What Lateral Corticospinal Tract conveys
Motor impulses for conscious skeletal muscle movement. According to the cortical lamination pattern, pyramidal cells project from layer 5 of the primary motor cortex, precentral gyrus.
Lateral Corticospinal Tract Pathway
1. Motor impulse conveyed from internal pyramidal layer of primary motor cortex through the midbrain via anterior cerebral peduncles to the pyramidal decussation in the medulla where impulse crosses to contralateral side. Then (still 1st neuron) continues down spinal cord to level of regional innervation.
2. Synapse of 1st neuron to 2nd in ventral horn of vertebra, then out ventral horn to skeletal muscle.