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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General External Features of spinal cord
w/in spinal (vertrbral) canal
from brain stem to conus-ap. L2
foramen mag. is division between brain and sp. cord.
longitudinal view Flattened in dorsal
cervical enlargement
origin for nerves supplying upper extremity
lumbar enlargement
origin for nerves supplying lower extremity
conus medullaris
cone shaped ending of sp. cord ap. T12-2
filum terminal
tissue from conus (pia mater) to coccyx
causa equina
"horses tail" group of spinal nerves inside spinal canal
(hangs off conus)
spinal segments
there are 31; one pair of spinal nerves arises from each segment
R & L sides of spinal cord
anterior median fissure
posterior median sulcus
anterior median fissure
a deep wide groove on the anterior side
posterior median sulcus
a shallow narrow furrous on the posterior dorsal side
cord only appears segmented in early stages of development
cross section of spinal cord
lateral white column &
posterior white column
white matter
surrounds gray matter; consists of myelinated fibers
anterior(ventral) white column
is column shaped in longitudinal view
anterior white commissure
pronounced "kom" is sure; connects white colimns
Gray matter
unmyelinated fibers & cell bodies (not myelinated); of multipolar neurons
anterior(ventral) gray horn
term "horn" is used when cord seen in x.s.
frontal division of the lateral ventricle of the brain, extending forward from Monro's interventricular foramen.
Lateral (gray) horn
between the anterior & posterior gray horns
present only in the thoracic, upper lumbar, & sacral segments of spinal cord
Posterior (gray) horn
contain somatic & autonomic sensory nuclei
Gray commissure
on either side (surrounds) central canal of sp. cord
central canal of spinal cord
continuous w/ ventricles (cavities) of brain; contains c.s.f. (cerebral spinal fluid)
anterior median fissure
deep, wide groove on the anterior(ventral)side groove penetrates whiter matter on spin. cord & divids the L&R side
Posterior median sulcus
shallower narrow furrow on the posterior dorsal side
running inside the C.N.S.
Ascending tracts
is a sensory tract (consists of sensory or afferent neurons)
Desending tracts
is a motor tract (consists of motor or efferent neurons)
Protective Coverings of spinal cord
vertebral column
vertebral column
strongest of the protective coverings
vertebral (spinal) canal
made up of indiv. vertebrae
stacked on top of one another
Cranial meninges
conn. tissue encircle the brain
spinal meninges
conn. tissue surrounding spinal cord
dura mater
outer layer of meninges or outer meninx
epidural space
between dura & bone of vert. column
has fat, vessels
it is the injection site for anesthetics
subdural space
contains interstitial fluid
middle layer of meninges or middle menix
(spiter webb like)
subarachnoid space
contains c.s.f.
(below arachnoid memebrane)
Pia mater
inner layer or inner menix (part of the meninges)
Denticulate ligament
runs laterally between tracts from pia to dura mater; helps to anchor chord in vertebral canal
Meninges: 3 layers
protective cover:
Two major spinal cord functions
connect periphery & brain
Intergrate reflexes
connect periphery & brain
away from c.n.s. is periphery
integrate reflexes
volentary or involentary
impulse conduction
function is carried out by ascending & desending tracts; names of the tracts indicate the white column or funculus in which the tracts travel
a fast involuntary response to a change (stimulus) helps maintain homeostasis
conduction pathway
the path an impulse travels from it's origin to it's point of termination
posterior or dorsal (sensory) root ganglion
nerves outside c.n.s
ganglia contain unipolar neurons
(swelling on back root)
anterior or ventral (motor) root
contain axons of motor neurons, which conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to effector and cells.
Reflex arc & conduction pathway
involuntary conduction pathway
end of a dendrite either naked or associated w/ adjacent tissue
(picks up impulses all over body)
sensory neuron
conducts impulse from recptors to c.n.s.
(travels through out)
center (brain and/or spinal cord)
impulses translated, slowed, redirected
(can do anything)
association neuron may or may not be present
btwn. sensory and motor neurons
motor neuron
carries impulse from c.n.s. to effector
(directly stimulated)
muscle or gland
(knee jerk reflex
spinal reflexes
reflexes involving sp cord only
somatic reflex
reflexes inv. skeletal muscle
cranial reflex
reflexes inv. brain centers & cranial nerve
visceral (autonomic) reflex
reflex inv. involuntary effectors=smooth & cardiac muscles; glands
cervial #
thoracic #
lumbar #
sacral #
coccygeal #
sensory (afferent)
to c.n.s.
motor (efferent)
away c.n.s.
mixed neurons
includes all spinal nerves & all directions
surrounds entire nerve
fascicles (fasciculi)
bundle of nerve fibers (axons)
surrounds or difines fascicles
surrounds each nerve fiber
branches (rami) of a spin. nerve
branches close to cord
means branch
dorsal ramus
sm. ramus of two
supplies deep muscle & skin of back of trunk
ventral ramus
supplies superfical back muscles, all extremities
lateral & ventral trunk
rami communicants
branches of sp. nerves
belongs to the a.n.s.
network of vessels, nerves, lymphatics, ect.
These spinal plexuses are formed from the venral rami of all sp. nerves except T2-T12
thin skin
skin segments
somatic sensory & motor system are involved in the regulation of ________
What nerves DO NOT form plexuses?
intercostal (thoracic) nerves
Posterior or dorsal (sensory) root
contains only sensory axons, which skin, muscles and internal organs into CNS