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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Discuss the regions of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae each contains.
cervical-7 vertebrae
sacral-5 fused (called sacrum)
coccygeal-3 or 4 fused (coccyx)
Where is the body of the vertebra w/ respect to the spinal cord? Does the body become smaller or larger as it goes from C3 to L5?
anterior to spinal cord
What does the vertebral arch create? Dicuss its parts.
cranial/caudal opeing that protects the spinal cord
has 2 pedicles and 2 laminae
How many vertebral processes does each vertebrae contain? Name them.
4 articular processes, 3 lever-like, 2 transverse, 1 spinous
What is the purpose of the vertebral foramen?
helps form the vertebral canal containing the spinal cord
What forms the intervertebral foramen? What does it contain?
inferior and superior vertebral notches
contain dorsal root ganglion and spinal nerves
Where do spinous processes extend? What are they connected by (2 things)?
extend posteriorly and inferiorly
connected by interspinous and supraspinous ligaments
Where does the transverse process originate? What is it the site of?
originates from the junction of the pedicles and laminae
it is a site of muscle attachment
What do articular facets do?
limit rotation and flexion of adjacent vertebral bodies and add stability to the vertebral column
Name the two sets of articular facets and which way each faces?
inferior articular processes-face inferior and lateral
superior articular processes-face superior and medial
What are pars interarticularis? When are they defective?
the portion between the superior and inferior articular facet on each vertebra
defective in isthmic spondylolisthesis
What is the unique feature of cervical vertebra? What is it needed for?
foramen transversarium for the vertebral artery in C1-C6, C7 only contains the vein
What does C7 have that other vertebrae do not?
vertebral prominence-an extra long spinous process
What is the name of C1? Describe its stucture?
no body or spinous process, does have a posterior arch and tubercle
What is the name of C2? Describe its stucture
has a body and spinous process, two large suprerior articular facets and one large dens or odontoid process
What is the anterior tubercle on the lateral process of C6 called? What does it mark?
carotid (misnomer) or CASSIGNAC's tubercles
marks the approximate location where the vertebral artery enters the foramen transversarium and location for the stellate ganglion
What is the stellate ganglion? Where is it located?
it is one of the sympathetic ganglia that provides postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the head and neck region
located at cassignac's tubercle on C6
Discuss the characteristics of thoracic vertebrae.
articulate w/ ribs
have @ least 1-2 facets for the heads of ribs, and additional facet for tubercle of rib on the transverse process
Which vertebrae have facets for ribs?
thoracic, lumbar do not
What do articular processes of the lumbar vertebrae that project superior and inferior do?
limit rotation, but permit flexion and extension
What is the additional process for muscle attachment on the lumbar vertebrae called?
mammillary process
this process is also present on 4 inferior thoracic vertebra
What does the sacrum do?
supports the vertebral column
What are the 2 parts of the sacrum?
sacral hiatus
What does the ala of the sacrum articulate w/?
the pelvis
What is the sacral hiatus?
an opening on the posterior surface at the end of the sacral canal
What is the sacral hiatus covered by?
posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What are the shock absorbers in between each vertebrae called?
intervertebral discs
What are the 2 parts of intervertebral discs? Describe the structure of each.
annulus fibrosus-layers of oblique fibers running around and between vertebral bodies
nucleus pulposus-avascular gelatinous mass, derived from notochord, acts as shock absorber
Which ligament is the strong, broad, fibrous band running anterior to the vertebral bodies and discs and runs from the base of the skull to the sacrum? What is its purpose?
anterior longitudinal ligament
limits hyperextension
Which ligament runs within the vertebral canal, just anterior to the spinal cord? What is its purpose? What is the name of this ligament as it crosses C1 and occipital bone?
posterior longitudinal ligament
stabilizes vertebral bodies
tectorial membrane
What are the synovial joints between hyaline cartilage? What are they surrounded by? What is their purpose?
facet or zygapophyseal joints
articular capsule
limit movement between adjacent vertebrae
What are facet or zygoapophyseal joints between?
between adjacent superior and inferior articular processes
Describe the ligamentum flavum. What does it extend from? What 2 things does it form?
rich in elastic (yellow) fibers
extends from lamina to lamina
forms-posterior boundary of intervertebral foramen and posterior wall of spinal canal
Which ligaments run between adjacent spinous processes? Which is more superficial? What is their purpose?
interspinous ligament
supraspinous ligament (more superficial)
limit most of hyperflexion of the spine
Which ligament is just in the neck region?
Where is it located w/ regard to the supraspinous ligament
nuchal ligament
more superficial
Why are we generally unable to palpate the bifid spinous processes of C2-C6?
b/c of the presence of the nuchal ligament
What is defected in Spondylolysis? Where is it located? What is a common result?
the pars interarticularis, the part between the superior and inferior facets
the inferior facets can break most commonly in L5
What is Spondylolisthesis? What is a common results?
anterior slipping of a vertebra in relation to the adjacent inferior vertebra or sacrum, also called anterior subluxation
often caused by spondylolysis, which allows the vertebral column to slide forward
compression of sacral spinal nerves and leg pain
What is a sacral hiatus? What causes it?
-posterior, inferior opening to the sacral canal
-caused by failure of the posterior arch of S5 to fuse in the midline
What covers the sacral hiatus? By penetrating it what can one access?
posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
epidural space
Where does the dural sac terminate? spinal cord?
about S2
about L2
What joins the coccyx and sacrum?
cartilagionous joint
What attaches to the coccyx?
pelvic diaphragm
What ruptures in a herniation of an intervertebral disc?
nucleus pulposus through the annulus fibrosus
Where does a herniation of an intervertebral disc normally occur?
L4-5 and L5-S1, some can be C6-7
Which direction does the herniation of an intervertebral disc occur? Why is this the case? What is used for treatment?
posterior/lateral direction due to the posterior longitudinal ligament
epidural injection of steroids, or surgical removal of herniated nucleus pulposus
The junction of atlas and occipital bone allow for what? What 2 things help to stabilizes them?
flexion and extension
posterior and anterior atlanto-ocipital membrane/ligament
Articulation of the atlas with the axis is for what?
rotation of the head on the vertebral column
What holds the atlas to the dens of the axis? Name its three parts.
cruciform ligament
superior, transverse and inferior portions
What joins the dens process of the axis to the occipital condyles? What does it help limit?
alar ligament
it helps limit the rotation of the head on the dens
What is whiplash? What is damaged?
hyperexstension(or flexion) of the neck
in hyperextension the anterior longitudinal ligament in front of the vertebral bodies and the anterior neck muscles are stretched/torn
intervertebral discs may rupture, and atlas and axis may break
What is Hangman's fracture?
breakage of the posterior arch of the axis
the atlas and odontoid process and body of C2 stay in line w/ head and rest of column breaks inferiorly
What forms the spinal canal? Does the spinal canal increase or decrease as it goes down?
vertebrae and ligaments
increase 17 mm at thoracic, 23 mm at lumbar
What is spinal canal stenosis? When and where does it occur? What is it caused by? What is the result?
-narrowing of the spinal canal
-occurs as one ages generally within the lumbar region
-caused by continued bone growth and associated w/ hypertrophy of the CT
-leads to low back pain, leg pain
-severe cases require laminectomy
Describe kyphosis. Where is the excessive curvature located? What group of people commonly develop kyphosis?
-anterior, concave curvature of spinal column
-excessive curvature is generally in the thoracic region
Describe lordosis. What is normal lordosis? What group of people commonly develop lordosis?
anterior, convex curvature
lumbar and cervical regions that occur upon holding ones head up and standing
-common in pregnant women
Describe scoliosis. What parts of the spine is it associated with?
abnormal lateral and rotational curvature of the verterbral column
-thoracic and lumbar