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124 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Forensic Science
Application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are unforced by the police in the CJ system.
August Vollmer
Given credit for establishing the first forensic science lab.
Los Angles- 1923
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
English writer who wrote about forensic investigations.
Leone Lettes
Credited with blood tying dried blood; blood must be dried or it will be destroyed (some DNA lost when dried).
Karl Landsteiner
Made many discoveries about blood types.
Alphonse Bertillion
Father of personal identification or anthropometry.
Edmond Locard
Created the transfer of evidence theory.
Locard's Principle of Exchange
When 2 things touch there will always be a cross transfer of evidence.
Measure certain body parts for identification purposes; ex.) lenght of an arm, left food, ear, distance between eyes. Finger prints replaced anthropometry.
4 Blood Types & Percents in Population
O=43%, A=42%, B=12%, AB=3%
OJ Simpson has AB blood type.
100 different types of blood factors= controlled by genetics.
Preciptin Test
Use of phenothalien (turns pink) to determine if a liquid is blood or not.
Kastle Meyer Test
Test used to determine if a blood sample is human.
Study of blood.
*Antagens and antibodies are found in the blood/body.
*Antigen is protein produced by the body.
*FOr every antigen there is an antibody made.
Class Characteristics
Group of certain characteristics.
Individual Characteristics
Specific characteristic of a group.
Eurythroctyes (Red Blood Cells)
Carry oxygen around the body.
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells)
Fights infections in the body.
HELPS clot blood.
*55% of blood is plasma.
*32% chance that DNA can be collected from the rim of a hat.
Substance that makes blood clot.
*Hemaphiliac- unable to clot blood.
*Takes healthy person 3-5 mins. to clot.
*Clot from outside to inside.
Amount of Blood in Body
8-10 pints. Men usually have more blood than women.
Secret blood types in blodily fluids.
*80% of the population considered this.
Study of poisions.
Fingerprints & Percent in Population
Loops=60-65%, Archs=30-35%, Whorls=5%.
*1% of crimes solved by fingerprints.
*1901 NVSCSC first to use fingerprint indentification.
Father of Forensic Toxicology
Matthew Orfelia.
Francis Galton
Given credit for the first study of fingerprints.
Chance of people having the same fingerprints/DNA.
4 Major Crime Labs
DEA, FBI, ATF, US Postal
*320 crime labs in the U.S.
3 Functions of A Forensic Scientist
Collect evidence, testify in court, train others to collect evidence.
Frye/Daubert Standard
Standard judges use to omit evidence within the court.
Buccal Cells
Cells that contian DNA, found within the cheek of a mouth.
4th Amendment
Search and seizure laws.
Mapp vs. Ohio (4th)
Police went into a house without a search warrant and found child porn.
*Poision Tree Doctrine
5th Amendment
Self-incrimanation laws.
*Miranda Rights
6th Amendment
Right to an attorney/fair trial.
Gideon vs. Wainwright (6th)
Court did not give an attorney, and was released after appealed case.
8th Amendment
Curel and unusual punishment.
Evidence That Comes Into A Lab
Victim's clothing, Fingernail scrapings, Head (50 hairs) & Pubic Hairs (24 hairs), Blood, Vaginal Anal & Oral Swabs, Recovered Bullets (Antimony, GSR, Barium), Hand Swabs (GSR).
Schemelle Decision
Police can search within an arms lenght of the defendant.
California vs. Greenwood
If garbage on curb line the 4th amendment does NOT apply anymore.
Search warrant- warrant must be specific to what your looking for and where your allowed to search.
Furman vs. Georgia
Stopped death penalty as being unconstitutional.
Greg vs. Georgia
Made death penalty unconsitiutional.
Tennessee vs. Garner
Fleeing felon rule.
Baarks Rule (NYS)
Can shoot at a fleeing felon if involved in burglary, arson, assult, rap or kidnapping.
Colorado vs. Bertin
Police can search a car that is impounded without a warrant.
Plain View Doctrine
If something is in "plain-view" you have probable cause to search without a warrant.
Disaster Morturary Operational Response Team (DMORT)
When a massive disaster happens, doctors are called in to help ID bodies.
*10 DMORT teams in US
First to observe body. Can be sherif, prosecutor or funeral director at times.
*Nobody can move body without corenor permission.
Ficks/Fouriers Law
A single cause explains a certain event.
Federal Rule 702
Expert rule- can only testify your opinion.
Exper Witness
Judge can deem you an expert in your field and you must abide by Rule 702.
Qualifications of Expert Witness
S-Scientific validity of test used.
K- Knowledge.
E- Education.
E- Experience.
T- Training.
Characteristics of a Realiable Scientific Method
Integrity, competence, defensable technology, reliable tests.
5 Causes of Death
Natural, Suicide, Homicide, Undetermined, Accidental.
The medical speciality dealing with diagonsis of disease by examining tissues and fluids in body.
Inquisitional Judge
Determines death of a personk, asks questions. AKA corenor.
Medical Examiner
Replaced corenor, required to have medical degree.
2 Main Types of Pathology
*Anatoimc- deals with structual alterations to body.
*Clinical- deals with labratory examinations;samples removed from body.
Surgical Pathologist
Examines organs and tissues for purposes of making diagnoses to help primary physicians.
Cytologist Pathology
Examines cells and groups of cells to determine milginant conditions.
Autospy Pathologist
Preforms autospies usually in a hospital setting to determine cause of death for a family member.
Forensic Pathology
Same as autospy pathologist.
3 Stages Human Body Exibits After Death
*Mummification- body fluids gone, skin turns brown and is like leather.
*Skeletalization- only bones found.
Bones in the Human Body
206 in the human body.
Happens right after death because of broken down cells producing bacteria.
Decomposition of Body
*23 days after death body turns green because of gloss of hemoglobin.
*After 3 days body will swell from gases.
*Green areas will blister.
*Tongue swells, eyes liquify, fluids exit body.
*1 month- abdomen of body will burst.
Rates of Body Decomposition
The decompositiion rate of a body in air is aprox. 2x's as quick as a body in water and between 4-8x's as rapid as a body burried in the earth.
Medical disection and examination of a body in order to determine the cause of death.
*Y-cut and T-cut.
Rigor Mortis
Deals with muscles and occurs immedaitely following death. Muscles relax and then become rigid. Occurs witin 24 hours and disappears after 36 hours.
*Lack of glycogen causes stiffness.
Livor Mortis
Deals with body fluids. Also a result of gravity, fluids will drop to body parts closest to the ground. The skin will appear dark purple where fluids settled. Occurs immdeiately after death and lasts 12 hours.
Algor Mortis
Deals with the temperature of the body. Body will contiunually cool until it reaches its surroundings. Begins 1 hour after death and body loses 1-1.5 degress/hour.
*Mesaures temp. in liver.
Vitreous Humor Test/Occular Fluid Test
Eyes release chemical after death. By measuring fluid in the eye, time of death can be determined= release of potassium.
First state to liscense nurses?
Year statute made to replace corenors with medical examiners?
What percent of deaths examined by forensic pathologists are natural?
50% or half.
How many days does it take for a magot to turn into a fly?
14 days.
Human heart weighs?
Aprox. 1 pound.
Human brain weighs?
About 3 pounds.
Solution used to preserve bodies.
Are all bruises visable?
No, false.
"To look at the dead".
Paracadian Sac
Sac found around the heart.
Formnig of proteins from formadehyde reaction.
2 Biohazards When Dealing With Blood
HIV/AIDS and Hepititus B.
2 Most Common Specimens Taken
Blood and Hair.
When are legs disected?
Only if there is blood clots found within the lungs.
Autopsy Tape Size
525x525 pixels.
Civil Liability for Corenors and Medical Examiners
Civil Liablity= Corenors.
Forensic Pathologists in US?
500... 25 Have medical degree/law degree.
4 Classifications of Trauma
Mechanical, Chemical, Thermal, and Electrical.
Mechanical Trauma
Deals with weapons/instruments, traffic accidents, and domestic violence.
Chemical Trauma
Deals with acids, poisions, and alkalides.
Meis Lines
Lines found on fingernails if arsenic poisioning COD.
Thermal Trauma
Deals with heat, radiation, and cold.
Excessive cold.
Excessive heat.
Strantium 90
Radiation found in all human bones of people born after 1945.
Electrical Trauma
Electricution, Lightning Strikes.
2 Categories of Mechanical Injuries
Blunt Force- application of force to the body by a blunt instrument or where body strikes surface.
Sharp Force- Caused by cutting or stabbing the skin.
3 Categories of Blunt Force Trauma
Abrasions, Bruises, Lascerasions.
Superifical injury to the skin in which outer layer of skin is scrapped off.
Contusion that occurs when blood vessels in the skin/internal organ rupture.
Wounds with a irregualr edge which results from blunt force trauma.
Large area of blood loss/bleeding.
Bleeding out, person loses over half of blood in system.
Asphyxial Death
COD= oxygen depletion from brain.
3 Types of Sharp Force Wound
Incised Wounds, Penetrating Wound, and Chopped Wound.
Incised Wound
Cuts found on the body.
Superficial Wound
Size on the surface larger than depth of wound.
Penetrating Wound
Depth of wound is greater than the size on the surface.
Chopped Wound
Wound caused by heavy instrument.
7 Categories of Wounds
Bullet, Stab, Blunt Force, Rape, Poision, Burn, and Traffic Fatality.
Firearms Injury
Most common suicidal/homicidal wounds found in the U.S.
2 Types of Gunshot Wounds
Penetrating Wound- entrance but no exit. Perferating Wound- entrance and exit.
Velocity or Size of Bullet?
Velocity is what causes the most damage.
When does a bullet start to slow/drop?
25 yards.
Exits of Gunshot Wound
*Exit wound is smaller and slit shapped; have side lascerations= bullet at high speed.
*Exit with side lascerations means= bullet at low speed.
Bullet enters body at side angle.
3 Classifications of Gunshot Entrance Wounds
Contact Wound, Intermediate Wound, and Distant Wound.
Ethanol found in ALL alcoholic drinks.
Accounts for 50% of all traumatic deaths.
What is alcohol?
C2 H5 OH
C4 H10 O and H20
What is the most common drug found by Forensic Pathologists?
Alcohol followed by marijuana.