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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Morphemes: inflectional vs derivational
inf: plural, past, posessive

deriv: change part of speech (ie adj->adverb, noun->verb)
d-structure vs s-structure
d=deep, meaning, relationship between S and O
s=surface, order words go in
ie: John is easy to plese, John is eagar to please
(same s-structure, differnt d-strucutre as John is object vs subject)
Ways to form questions
-rising intonation
-Y/N: insert aux. verb and invert w/subj.
-Wh: insert Wh-word, insert aux. verb and invert w/S
Full formed questions involve all complex aspects of grammar
Infant sensitivity to grammar
17 mos: differentiate between A tickles B or B tickles A

24 mos: differentiate between transitive and intransitive; A is eating B, A is eating with B
Parameters: null-subject/pro-drop
P: set of "switches" that are on in some languages and off in another
N-S: parameter where sentences don't have to have an explicit subject (italian, spanish, etc)
Brown's 14 Morphemes
1.present progressive
2/3. prepositions in, on
4. plural s
5. irreg. past tense
6. posessive
7. uncontractable copula (ie. this is)
8. articles
9. regular past tense -ed
10. 3rd person tense, regular
11. 3rd person irregular
12. uncontractably aux. verb (ie do you, she was...)
13. contractable copula (ie I'm, you're)
14. contractably aux. verb (is She's going, We're singing)
Why 14 morphemes were chosen
-based on obligitory use in context
-phonitically minimal forms
-recieve only light vocal emphasis (or none)
-limited class of constructions
-gradual development, least linguistically complex to most
MLU: details and rules for counting
-mean length of utterence, measured in # of morphemes
-transcribe 1/2 hour conversation, starting on 2nd page count 100 utterances
-don't count fillers, do count no/yeah/hi
-don't count stuttering, do count emphasis
-compound words =1, no reason to think child know's them as 2 words
-irreg past tense verbs = 1
-dimminutives =1
-aux. and catenatives (gonna, hafta) =2
-count all inflections as 2
-->good for first 46 months
MLU stages
1: 12-26 mos, 1.0-2.0
2: 26-30 mos, 2.5-3.0, minimal inflections
3: 31-34 mos, 2.5-3.0, yes/no/wh questions, negations, imparatives
4: 35-40 mos, 3.0-3.75, ebedding clauses/phrases
5: 40-46 mos, 3.75-4.5, joining clauses
Index of Productive Syntax
-can measure past 4.0 MLU
-need 100 utterances
-mark up to 2 very different uses of structures into 4 categories
--NP, VP, Q's/Negatives, Sentence structure
Telegraphic speech: sematic relationships
-agent/action (me jump)
-agent object
-action object
-action location
-entity location
-posessor posession
-entity attribute
-demtrative entity

-applying word meaning to incorrect object

-applying regular gramatical rules to word that are exceptions
Periods of Negation Acquisition
-negaitve marker "no/not" in front of sentance (no go movies, no sit, no mommy do it)
-negtive placed next to main verb (I no like it, I no want book)
-correct use of negative (I don't have it, I'm not sad)-> not reached until Stage IV
Late acquisition in preschoolers
-passives: reversables (meaning changes if S and O are reversed); Truncated ("the dog was fed"); Irreversible (makes no sense if S and O reversed--easier to learn)
-Coordinations: combining sentences (sentenial vs phrasal)
-relative clauses: easier to add clause to object than subject (understand around age 3)
Anaphora: define, give principles
-"how different pronoun forms link up with thier referents in a sentance."
-ie, John hurt him. John hurt himself.
-P1: A reflexive pronoun is always bound to a referant in the same clause
-P2: an anaphoric pronoun cannot be bound to a referant in the same clause
-P3: backward co-referance is allowed only if the pronoun is in a subordinate clause to main referent
-P1,P2: get around age 6-7; P3: get around 11-12
Speech Act Theory
-Austin, 1975
-Locutionary act: saying something that makes sense
-Illocutionary act: purpose for saying something
-Perlocutionary act: the effect sentance had on a listener
-addresses child/adult communicative abilities
Cognitive Developmental Theory
-egocentrism: inability to take another's perspective (echolalia, simple monologue, collective monologue); very context dependant
Nonegocentric speech
-Preschoolers are less/not egocentric in speech when tasks are fairly simple and they are motivated to do the task
Semantic Mitigators:

Semantic Aggrivators:
M: saying "please," softening request, giving reason for request

Ag: intenfify request, "Right now!" "or else!"
Understanding of indirect requests
-preschoolers can understand and respond to indirect requests
Strategies for making requests
-age 3: use aux. and modals (could you, can I, do you have...)
-age 4-4:6: increase indrect requests, take partener's view into consideration
-age 5+: masking goal of request, add additional explanations
Conversational Skills
-maintain topic
-use of cohesive devices (replace names with pronouns, etc)
-use of ellisis (remove parts of sentance when repeating. "Did XX do YY today?" "No, she didn't")
-back channel feedback (not until later in development. use of "yeah," "uh-huh" and nodding)
Changes in African American Vernacular English from Standard English
-phonological: final consonant drop, consonant reversals
-syntactic: use of doube negatives
-pragmatic: signifying (yo mama comments)
Differences in language and gender
Girls: more semantic softeners, more tag questions
Boys: more aggressive lanugage
-more similarities than differences
-most differences are in ways parents address son/daugher
Difficulty and influences in acquiring communicative competence
-no hard/fast rules for competence; many polite forms have no clear referents; conventions for competent comm. differ between settings
-Family: socialize language, enforce use of social routines, use conversational skills
-School: informal conversaions, story telling, role playing, peer interactions,
Theoretical adequacy
a fininte set of principals that accounts for all language behaviors observed and also actual set of mechanisms used by language learning children (most ambitious level of adequacy)
structuralism vs functionalism
S: Mechanics behind observed behaviors. The words which are said, how they are said.

F: role of situations in language productions. What made you say that
Competence vs performance
C: knowledge of grammatical rules. How well you know your language

P: how effective language is used in a given situation
Nativism vs Empiricism
N: Inate structures for language learning

E: environmental influences of language learning
Behavioral Approach
-apply classical and operant conditioning to language learning
-language does not have implicit knowledge of grammar
-support: disorderd population can be remediated w/techniques
-against: not much evidence parents shape syntax (no real rewards/punishments), language not classified as "just another behavior"
Classical Conditioning in Language Learning
-stimulus/response theory
-reflects learning of receptive vocab
-ie, mom yells HOT before baby touches stove. Pairs HOT with pain, learns that HOT isn't good
Operant Conditioning in Language Learning
-change in behavior occurs voluntarily as a consequence to environmental changes
-positive or negative reinforcements
-expressive vocab acquisition
-parents respond better to closer approximations of adult speech
Linguistic Approach
-grammar is generative
-true grammar reflects competance, human languages only vary slightly, genetic predisposition for language
-structural, nativist
-support: basic structure acquired first, similar acqu. patterns in all langs, critical period, "no negative"-don't tell kids they said something wrong
-against: never found LAD, points for can also go against
Interactionist Approach: Cognitive
-emphasize internal structures that determine lang. behavior
-agree with D-/S-structure and comp/vs performance
-language is not seperate cognitive system, part of overall cog. system
-support: nonling. and ling. achievement coincide
-against: cannot account for precocious kids, disorderd kids may have low cog. ability but talk well
Interactionist Approach: Social
-combines Ling./Behav. approaches
-stress perf. over comp.
-support: eclectic, stress on caregivers as important in acqu.
-against: interpretation is intuitive, questions role of baby talk, questions methodolgy
Information Processing Approach
-PDP=Parallel Distributed Process: series os processing units called "activation nodes," all language connected (like axons in brain)
-forms of language most frequently used w/child are learned first, rarer take longer (cue ability)