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84 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following helps a speaker establish a sense of moral character with an audience?


a. Demonstrating enthusiasm and a positive outlook

b. Mentioning numerous research sources and materials

c. Showing concern for high-order values and principles

d. Using language that is emphatic, clear, and confident
The correct answer is C. The audience's perception of a speaker's character depends on how the speaker demonstrates his or her belief in values and principles. A speaker should make it clear that he or she is concerned about important, long-term issues rather than insignificant ones.
A speech with a catchy introduction, a strong ending, and a lackluster body is said to suffer from which of the following?


a. Redundancy

b. Mid-speech sag

c. Selective exposure

d. Mid-speech boredom
The correct answer is B. Mid-speech sag occurs when the body of a speech lacks the interest and energy of the beginning and end. A speaker who spends more time focusing on a polished introduction and conclusion rather than a well-organized body may experience mid-speech sag.
Which of the following methods involves asking yourself a series of general and subject-specific questions in order to generate speech topics?


a. Dictionary of topics

b. Search directory

c. Tree diagram

d. Topoi
The correct answer is D. Topoi, or the system of topics, is based on a rhetoric technique used in ancient Greece and Rome. General questions and questions specific to a subject are asked in order to generate speech topic ideas.
A speech that involves background preparation, idea organization, brief notes, and a conversational delivery would be described as which of the following?


a. Extemporaneous

b. Memorized

c. Manuscript

d. Impromptu
The correct answer is A. An extemporaneous speech involves preparation, organization, and notes. Delivery is conversational and flexible and gives the appearance of being effortless.
Which of the following terms is used for verbal and nonverbal cues that show what audience members think about a speaker?


a. Facial expressions

b. Audience feedback

c. Contextual evidence

d. Audience adaptation
The correct answer is B. Audience feedback is the nonverbal and verbal cues conveyed by audience members regarding a speaker. Surprised looks, nodding heads, and verbal remarks are examples of audience feedback.
Which of the following questions should be considered when evaluating the organization of a speech?


a. Does the speaker state a goal for the speech?

b. Does the speaker persuade the audience?

c. Does the speaker show expertise in the topic?

d. Does the speaker use clear language?
The correct answer is A. A well-organized speech should have a clearly stated goal. Evaluating the organization of a speech involves determining whether structure, transitions, and main points are clearly established by the speaker.
Organizing the main points of a speech based on an object's structure is referred to as which of the following types of patterns?


a. Chronological

b. Elimination

c. Causal

d. Spatial
The correct answer is D. With spatial organization, the speaker organizes major ideas based on their physical location. For example, a speech about the earth's layers might progress from the outer crust to the core or vice versa.
Which of the following refers to the act of paying attention to what a speaker says despite distractions?


a. Evaluating

b. Understanding

c. Active listening

d. Attending
The correct answer is D. Attending refers to paying attention to a speaker despite distractions. Poor listeners are easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or the activities of others.
Which mode of delivery is most suitable when a speaker does not have time to prepare a speech in advance?


a. Impromptu

b. Memorized

c. Manuscript

d. Extemporaneous
The correct answer is A. An impromptu speech is the most appropriate for a speaker who has had no time to make preparations. An impromptu speech involves no planning, no preparation, and no practice.
Which of the following refers to an audience analysis based on factors such as audience size, time of day, and physical setting?


a. Sociological audience analysis

b. Psychological audience analysis

c. Demographic audience analysis

d. Situational audience analysis
The correct answer is D. The situational audience analysis is an important factor when adapting a speech. The size of the audience and the physical location of the speech may require a speaker to adjust the speech's length, language, and visual aids.
Which of the following patterns of organization is appropriate for a speaker who needs to grab the attention of the audience at the beginning of a speech?


a. Classification structure

b. Anticlimactic structure

c. Climactic structure

d. Pyramidal structure
The correct answer is B. Anticlimactic structure begins with the most intriguing argument in order to capture the attention of the audience. The weakest argument is given last with this organizational pattern.
A speech topic is considered appropriate for an audience when it can be characterized by which of the following?


a. Significant and persuasive

b. Emotional and informative

c. Interesting and relevant

d. Narrowed and limited
The correct answer is C. The primary concern for a speaker should be whether a topic is interesting and relevant to the audience. If the speech topic does not interest either the speaker or the audience, the speech will fail. Information provided in the speech should also be worthwhile to listeners.
Which of the following would be most appropriate for a speech attempting to persuade listeners that the school day should be lengthened?


a. Problem-solution pattern

b. Question-answer order

c. Motivated sequence

d. Temporal pattern
The correct answer is A. The problem-solution order is useful for speeches in which change is advocated. The speech would begin with a statement of the problem — decreased learning time in classroom — and would be followed with a solution to the problem — lengthening the school day.
Narratives, expert testimonies, blood tests, and statistics are examples of which of the following?


a. Claims of fact

b. Literal analogies

c. Supporting materials

d. Persuasive arguments
The correct answer is C. Supporting materials substantiate arguments presented in speeches. Supporting materials include examples, narratives, tests, and expert testimonies.
Which of the following amendments to the U.S. Constitution relates to freedom of speech?


a. First Amendment

b. Second Amendment

c. Fifth Amendment

d. Sixth Amendment
The correct answer is A. The First Amendment of the Constitution prohibits Congress from making laws that infringe upon an individual's freedom of speech. The First Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights.
The process of evaluating and judging the positive and negative aspects of a speech is referred to as which of the following?


a. Appeals

b. Criticism

c. Assimilation

d. Social exchange
The correct answer is B. Criticism involves evaluating the positive and negative elements of a speech. Criticism can provide useful information to a speaker about the strengths and weaknesses of a speech.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of memorizing an oral presentation?


a. Lack of clarity and credibility

b. Difficult to recover from mistakes

c. Minimal eye contact with audience

d. Hard to incorporate bodily movements
The correct answer is B. A speaker who makes a mistake during a memorized speech may find it difficult to recover. Forgetting a line requires the speaker to search for the missing information and break the flow of the speech.
When all points on an outline use the same grammatical structure, the outline is adhering to which of the following principles?


a. Principle of division

b. Principle of subordination

c. Principle of structure

d. Principle of parallelism
The correct answer is D. The principle of parallelism suggests that every point on an outline be structured in the same grammatical fashion. For example, an outline that uses sentences should consistently use sentences, rather than a mixture of sentences, fragments, and brief phrases.
The fallacy of attacking a person instead of a disputed issue is referred to as which of the following?


a. Ad hominem

b. Red herring

c. Bandwagon

d. Slippery slope
The correct answer is A. Ad hominem is Latin for "against the man." In this error of reasoning, an individual is personally attacked instead of the real issue that is in dispute.
Which of the following is often used to allow audience members to consider a concept during a speech?


a. Silent pauses

b. Vocal variety

c. Inflections

d. Vocalized pauses
The correct answer is A. Public speakers often use a brief, silent pause for effect. A silent pause allows listeners time to consider a point or a question raised by the speaker.
Which of the following will most likely be achieved in a speech by avoiding redundancies and unnecessary words?


a. Appropriateness

b. Impersonal style

c. Formality

d. Clarity
The correct answer is D. Clarity can occur if a speaker is economical and does not waste words. Redundancies and meaningless words add clutter to a speech and should be avoided.
The actions that a speaker takes after analyzing an audience are referred to by which of the following terms?


a. Formation of attitudes

b. Audience adaptation

c. Methods of presentation

d. Audience modification
The correct answer is B. After analyzing an audience's demographic and psychological characteristics, a speaker will make adaptations to a speech. Public speakers may need to modify a speech to make it more effective for an audience.
Which of the following should be carefully written because it is the basis for a well-organized speech?


a. Section transitions

b. Internal transitions

c. Specific speech goal

d. Rhetorical questions
The correct answer is C. The specific speech goal should be well crafted because it guides the direction of the speech. The specific speech goal follows up on the general goal of the speech.
A speech about Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps that is divided into his three most successful events — freestyle, butterfly, and relay — would be best organized according to which of the following patterns?


a. Problem-solution

b. Spatial

c. Cause-effect

d. Topical
The correct answer is D. The three categories are subtopics about Michael Phelps' career, so topical order is the most appropriate organizational pattern. With topical order, each section is equal and balanced.
A discrepancy between the truth and information given by a speaker that leads to public skepticism is referred to as which of the following?


a. Rhetorical communication

b. Ethical obligations

c. Credibility gap

d. Disparity
The correct answer is C. A credibility gap occurs when a speaker attempts to manipulate the truth. The term is most often used to describe the gap between what politicians say about a situation and the actual reality of the situation.
Which of the following is a primary reason for narrowing a speech topic?


a. Develop a general purpose

b. Improve research efficiency

c. Grab the attention of listeners

d. Increase interest of the audience
The correct answer is B. A broad topic requires the speaker to go through more research material than necessary. A narrow topic helps the speaker focus on specific information and increases efficiency.
Which of the following may be affected by vocalized pauses during a public speech?


a. Dramatic effect

b. Speaker credibility

c. Audience adaptation

d. Speech organization
The correct answer is B. Vocalized pauses may negatively affect a speaker's credibility with the audience. Saying "you know," "uh," or "er" during a speech may cause listeners to doubt the competence of the speaker.
Unethical speakers who overstate the importance of an issue are using which of the following?


a. Hyperbole

b. Euphemism

c. Persuasive language

d. Nonparallel language
The correct answer is A. Hyperbole is another term for exaggeration or overstatement. Persuasive speakers are often tempted to overstate the importance of an issue, which can be unethical.
A speaker who provides a four-sentence example about Rick Swenson, the five-time winner of the Iditarod Dog Race, is using which of the following?


a. Brief, actual example

b. Extended, actual example

c. Brief, hypothetical example

d. Extended, hypothetical example
The correct answer is B. The example is based on fact, so it is an actual example. Brief examples are one or two sentences, while extended examples are typically at least three sentences.
According to Alan Monroe's motivated sequence pattern, which of the following is the third step of the sequence?


a. Satisfaction

b. Attention

c. Visualization

d. Action
The correct answer is A. The third stage of the motivated sequence pattern is satisfaction. At this stage, the speaker shows how a need can be satisfied by the proposal presented in the speech.
By tailoring a speech to a specific audience, a speaker will most likely increase which of the following?


a. Knowledge of the message

b. Ethical responsibility

c. Credibility of the message

d. Audience participation
The correct answer is C. Customizing a message to an audience enables a speaker to gain credibility with the audience. The audience may view the speaker as knowledgeable because he or she is presenting information that is relevant to their own lives.
A speech thesis should be characterized by all of the following EXCEPT


a. Be clear and exact

b. Be neutral and broad

c. Be limited to one concept

d. Be stated as a declarative sentence
The correct answer is B. A speech thesis should be specific, narrow, and stated as a declarative sentence. A speech thesis is useful in focusing the audience's attention and in generating main points.
Which of the following best describes the Toulmin model?


a. A system for analyzing and sorting data

b. A method for organizing an argument

c. A system for analyzing arguments

d. A method for organizing a speech
The correct answer is C. Stephen Toulmin was a philosopher who created a method for analyzing arguments. The three primary parts of the Toulmin method are the claim, evidence, and warrant.
Which of the following purposes would most likely categorize topics such as "What are the effects of drug laws?" and "What impact does exercise have on life expectancy?"


a. Persuasive speech

b. Informative speech

c. Entertaining speech

d. Special occasion speech
The correct answer is B. An informative speech attempts to elevate an audience's knowledge about a specific topic. The speaker does not try to persuade the audience to make changes in their beliefs or attitudes.
When using testimony in a speech, which of the following characteristics of an expert is most important to establish with the audience?


a. Competency

b. Popularity

c. Rationality

d. Success
The correct answer is A. Expert testimony in a speech has no value if the audience does not find the individual credible. It is important to describe the expert's background and knowledge to show the audience that the expert's opinions and statements are valid.
Which of the following best explains why the meaning of a message cannot be the same for the speaker and the listener?


a. Varied methods of attending

b. Each has a different frame of reference

c. Varied critical thinking abilities

d. Each has a different communication channel
The correct answer is B. Frame of reference refers to the sum of an individual's attitudes, values, experience, and knowledge. Since no two people have the same frame of reference, they will never extract the same meaning from a message.
Which of the following would be most suitable for a speaker with a Southern drawl who is addressing an audience of New Yorkers?


a. Hide the accent during the speech

b. Slow down the speech rate

c. Increase the speech volume

d. Answer questions during the speech
The correct answer is B. It would be appropriate for the speaker to speak more slowly and distinctly. Speaking more slowly, especially at the beginning of the speech, would help listeners adjust to the speaker's unfamiliar accent.
Adding age or race designations to a description of a person is referred to as which of the following?


a. Generalizing

b. Sequencing

c. Cluttering

d. Marking
The correct answer is D. Marking refers to adding sex, age, or race designations to descriptions. "Mr. Smith is an excellent Latino engineer" is an example of marking.
Which of the following demographic elements has the greatest effect on political interest and participation in community affairs?


a. Education

b. Gender

c. Ethnicity

d. Occupation
The correct answer is A. The amount of education possessed by individuals typically influences their level of interest in politics and community affairs. Education also affects background knowledge about current affairs, world events, and political systems.
Which of the following would most likely help establish a speaker-audience-topic relationship?


a. Identify the goal of the speech

b. Compliment the audience

c. State the importance of the topic

d. Ask the audience questions
The correct answer is B. A connection needs to be established between the speaker, audience, and topic in order for the speech to go well. A sincere compliment about the location or the culture of the audience gets the attention of listeners and draws them into the speech.
When organizing the body of a speech, a writer should do which of the following?


a. Select two, three, or four main points

b. Structure the points in a topical pattern

c. Phrase main points in the form of a question

d. Include all points developed during brainstorming
The correct answer is A. Two to four main points helps create a focused speech. Too many main points in a speech may leave listeners confused about the information given.
In a response to critics in 1864, Abraham Lincoln said:

Gentlemen, suppose all the property you were worth was in gold, and you had put it in the hands of Blondin to carry across the Niagara River on a rope, would you shake the cable, or keep shouting out to him - 'Blondin, stand up a little straighter - Blondin, stoop a little more - go a little faster - lean a little more to the north - lean a little more to the south?' No, you would hold your breath as well as your tongue, and keep your hands off until he was safe over. The Government are carrying an immense weight. Untold treasures are in their hands. They are doing the very best they can. Don't badger them. Keep silence, and we'll get you safe across.

This excerpt provides an example of Lincoln's attempt to do which of the following?


a. Establish his credibility and honesty with an easily understood analogy

b. Use a narrative to contrast the differences between a tightrope walker and the government

c. Provide critics with an alternative perspective of government involvement

d. Use an analogy to compare the difficulties faced by a tightrope walker and the government
The correct answer is D. Lincoln compares the difficulties of being a tightrope walker with those of the government. A comparison is a type of analogy that makes a connection between a concept that is understood and a concept that the speaker wants listeners to understand.
Which of the following is most likely used by individuals who travel across the country giving speeches for money as part of a lecture circuit?


a. Extemporaneous mode

b. Impromptu mode

c. Memorized mode

d. Manuscript mode
The correct answer is C. A lecturer who gives the same speech to different audiences most likely uses the memorized speech delivery mode. Professional speakers often give a speech so many times that they learn when to expect laughs and applause.
The amount of time spent discussing an idea in a speech is referred to as which of the following?


a. Repetition

b. Proportion

c. Position

d. Transition
The correct answer is B. Proportion is the amount of time devoted in a speech to the development of an idea. Listeners perceive ideas that are discussed at length as more important.
Failing to cite sources used in a speech and presenting the ideas as your own is known by which of the following terms?


a. Incompetence

b. Accountability

c. Paraphrasing

d. Plagiarism
The correct answer is D. Plagiarism is the failure to credit sources for ideas or words. Ethical speakers cite the sources they use, which also adds credibility to their speech.
A time-sequence organizational pattern would be appropriate for which of the following speech topics?


a. Where are important Civil War battlegrounds located?

b. Casual smoking leads to nicotine addiction.

c. How do you make a homemade piecrust?

d. Many children in the U.S. are obese.
The correct answer is C. The time-sequence pattern is used to illustrate steps in a process. Audience members should be able to follow the steps provided in the speech to make a piecrust.
Which of the following would be suitable for a speaker who wants to make a speculation about the future?


a. Logical definition

b. Factual example

c. Operational definition

d. Hypothetical example
The correct answer is D. Hypothetical examples are appropriate when a speaker wants to discuss events that may occur in the future. Hypothetical examples are also useful when a speaker cannot find an actual example that is suitable for the point being made.
Which of the following methods of reducing speech apprehension involves learning relaxation techniques and imagining stressful situations?


a. Public speaking skills training

b. Performance orientation

c. Communication orientation

d. Systematic desensitization
The correct answer is D. Systematic desensitization requires a person to learn how to relax while thinking of frightening events. The individual creates a hierarchy of fears and uses the relaxation techniques while facing each fear.
Which of the following is the most effective way to listen actively during a speech?


a. Take good notes during the speech

b. Ask the speaker questions afterwards

c. Sit as close as possible to the speaker

d. Follow the provided speech outline
The correct answer is A. Taking notes is an effective method of active listening. Note taking can be used as a tool to remember information presented in a speech.
Which of the following best describes the purpose of speech criticism?


a. Point out mistakes and fallacies

b. Debate reasoning and arguments

c. Provide feedback and give suggestions

d. Assess problems and offer suggestions
The correct answer is C. The purpose of criticizing a speech is to give negative and positive feedback to the speaker and to offer suggestions for improvement. Criticism should not involve focusing only on the negative; it should include praise for the positive and suggestions for weaknesses.
Which of the following is the most effective way to evaluate a speech?


a. Focus only on the positive elements

b. Speak on behalf of the entire audience

c. Offer general advice that is not offensive

d. Provide specific comments with examples
The correct answer is D. Criticism is most effective if it is specific rather than general. Use examples from the speech to clarify comments.
Which of the following may negatively affect the delivery of a speech?


a. Making gestures below the waist

b. Pausing at transitional points

c. Varying voice and bodily action

d. Citing sources of information
The correct answer is A. Making gestures below the waist should be avoided during a speech. Audience members may inadvertently shift their attention from a speaker's face to the speaker's gestures.
A very brief statement that focuses audience attention on a key idea is referred to as which of the following?


a. Transition

b. Signpost

c. Internal summary

d. Internal preview
The correct answer is B. Signposts indicate to listeners where a speaker is in a speech. Examples of signposts include "the first cause" or "the second reason."
Which of the following types of reasoning would be most suitable for speeches related to public policies, such as "gun control will reduce violent crimes in America" and "school vouchers will improve U.S. public schools"?


a. Causal reasoning

b. Analogical reasoning

c. Reasoning from principle

d. Reasoning from specific instances
The correct answer is B. Analogical reasoning is typically used in persuasive speeches regarding policy issues. In such speeches, a new policy is compared to a similar policy that has been employed elsewhere.
Which of the following should a speaker do when adapting a speech to an unwilling audience?


a. Ask audience members to participate in the presentation

b. Begin the speech by establishing credibility and expertise

c. Integrate humor and interesting statistics into the speech

d. Use charts, statistics, and graphs to explain information
The correct answer is C. Sometimes audiences are unwilling listeners, such as high school students who are required to attend an assembly. Speakers faced with such unwilling audiences should gain attention early with interesting facts, statistics, and humor before transitioning to the main topic.
"To inform my audience of the recent progress in cancer research" is an example of which of the following?


a. General purpose

b. Thesis statement

c. Topic sentence

d. Specific purpose
The correct answer is D. The statement is an example of a specific purpose for a speech. The specific purpose should be worded as an infinitive phrase and be limited to one objective.
Which component of a speech should be organized and created first?


a. Introduction

b. Body

c. Conclusion

d. Bibliography
The correct answer is B. The body of a speech is typically developed and organized before the introduction and conclusion. The introduction and conclusion should reflect information in the body.
A speech that concludes with the notion that unethical lawyers are common in the United States because numerous attorneys have been convicted recently of fraud is using which of the following methods of reasoning?


a. Causal reasoning

b. Analogical reasoning

c. Reasoning from principle

d. Reasoning from specific instances
The correct answer is D. Reasoning from specific instances moves from a number of facts to a general conclusion. These types of conclusions are not infallible because exceptions always exist.
The correct answer is D. Reasoning from specific instances moves from a number of facts to a general conclusion. These types of conclusions are not infallible because exceptions always exist.
The correct answer is A. Slang or jargon may lower credibility if it is offensive or out-of-date. If used appropriately, jargon or slang can create a connection between speaker and audience.
Which of the following is considered a negative aspect of Internet research?


a. Difficulty of usage

b. Quality of information

c. Number of resources

d. Quantity of information
The correct answer is B. Internet resources are not always of the highest quality. Unlike cursory and questionable Internet information, research materials found in libraries are typically deeper, wider ranging, and more documented.
A person who becomes anxious during any type of public speech but is outgoing and dynamic among peers, strangers, and groups, most likely suffers from which of the following communication apprehensions?


a. Traitlike

b. Audience-based

c. Situational

d. Context-based
The correct answer is D. Context-based communication apprehension occurs when a person suffers from speaking apprehension in one type of setting but not in other settings. For example, most people communicate with individuals or groups without anxiety but become nervous when speaking publicly.
Taking advantage of which of the following will most likely improve a person's ability to evaluate a speech and take better notes?


a. Forecasting

b. Task functions

c. Power distance

d. Thought speed
The correct answer is D. Thought speed is the difference between the rate of speech and the rate of thought; a fast speed can improve a person's ability to evaluate speeches. A high thought speed enables a listener to anticipate a speaker's next point, summarize what a speaker has said, and evaluate supporting materials.
The way in which words and syllables are accented refers to which of the following?


a. Rate

b. Pitch

c. Stress

d. Volume
The correct answer is C. Stress is the way people accent words. Vocal stress can be attained during speech delivery by emphasizing certain words and pausing at strategic moments.
Which of the following elements is most important to consider when evaluating a persuasive speech?


a. Delivery and eye contact

b. Examples and narratives

c. Reasoning and evidence

d. Visual aids and demonstration
The correct answer is C. Reasoning and evidence are especially important to consider when evaluating persuasive speeches. A persuasive speech depends on the soundness of the evidence and the method of reasoning.
The use of specialized language in a speech should be based upon which of the following?


a. Reasoning and evidence

b. Speaker credibility

c. Supporting materials

d. Audience analysis
The correct answer is D. Information gained from an audience analysis will determine a speaker's language and style. If an audience consists of people who will understand technical jargon, then it is appropriate to use specialized terms.
Which of the following is one of the primary goals of a speech conclusion?


a. Provide an opportunity for questions

b. Reinforce audience understanding

c. Provide details about source materials

d. Reinforce credibility and goodwill
The correct answer is B. The conclusion should wrap up the speech and reinforce the central idea that was presented. Summaries or relevant quotations are often used to conclude speeches.
Which of the following is most likely the biggest error that beginning speakers make when selecting a speech topic?


a. Trying to address the needs of an entire audience

b. Trying to include too many supporting materials

c. Trying to stretch a small topic into a lengthy speech

d. Trying to cover a large topic in a short time frame
The correct answer is D. The mistake made by most first-time speakers is to choose a wide-ranging topic when a short time frame is given. The result is a speech that lacks depth.
Which of the following tools would be most useful for a persuasive speaker who wants to learn listener attitudes before giving a speech?


a. Sociological analysis

b. Audience questionnaire

c. Gallup Poll statistics

d. Audience demographics
The correct answer is B. A questionnaire will provide a speaker with information about audience attitudes. The speaker will then be able to tailor persuasive arguments towards that particular audience and give a more effective speech.
Which of the following is a potential benefit of an organized speech?


a. Audiences perceive a speaker as competent

b. Speakers reinforce audience preconceptions

c. Audiences agree with the speaker's points

d. Speakers present many supporting materials
The correct answer is A. A well-organized speech conveys to the audience that the speaker is prepared, competent, and credible. A disorganized speech loses the attention of listeners.
A speaker who compares playing football with running a business is using which of the following to illustrate a point?


a. Enthymeme

b. Literal analogy

c. Extrinsic proof

d. Figurative analogy
The correct answer is D. A figurative analogy makes a comparison between two very different things. A figurative analogy helps to illustrate a similarity, but it does not provide factual evidence.
Which of the following refers to how a word or phrase arouses feelings of anger, love, fear, and guilt among listeners?


a. Emotional appeal

b. Connotative meaning

c. Figurative language

d. Denotative meaning
The correct answer is B. Connotative meaning is the emotions or associations triggered by a word or a phrase. For example, the word "marriage" may trigger feelings of love and happiness for some listeners but feelings of anger and disappointment for others.
Which of the following indexes and abstracts articles from publications such as Newsweek, Scientific American, Psychology Today, and Sports Illustrated?


a. General database

b. Library catalogue

c. Reference work

d. Yearbook
The correct answer is A. A general database indexes and abstracts a wide variety of magazines, as well as some academic journals. Reader's Guide, ProQuest, and Lexis/Nexis are examples of general databases.
What is the term used for generating speech topic ideas through the free association of words and concepts?


a. Brainstorming

b. Interviewing

c. Journaling

d. Outlining
The correct answer is A. Brainstorming is a way to generate many ideas either alone or with other people. Brainstorming for topics can be done by taking a personal inventory, clustering, or searching for information in books or on the Internet.
An introduction that illustrates how a speech topic is in the listener's self-interest most likely includes which of the following?


a. Vivid quotation

b. Personal reference

c. Startling statement

d. Suspenseful statement
The correct answer is B. Introductions that personalize a topic for listeners gain the attention of the audience. A personal reference engages listeners to participate actively in the speech.
Which of the following is a common cause of public speaking apprehension?


a. Insufficient planning and preparation

b. Inability to develop a speech plan

c. Poorly structured audience analysis

d. Failure to adapt to audience cues
The correct answer is A. The primary reason people have speech apprehension is underdeveloped speaking skills. Reducing public speaking apprehensions requires practice and planning.
Which of the following terms refers to the evaluation of speech communication recommended by Aristotle?


a. Rhetorical criticism

b. Informative listening

c. Audience feedback

d. Active listening
The correct answer is A. Rhetorical criticism is the analysis and evaluation of a speech. Aristotle recommended studying and learning from the message and style of effective speakers.
Which of the following would be the best tool for finding information about federal laws and regulations associated with water pollution?


a. Lexis/Nexis Academic Universe

b. Reader's Guide Full Text

c. World Almanac

d. Facts on File
The correct answer is A. The Lexis/Nexis database provides abstracts on thousands of environmental journals and government reports. Information is updated daily, and full-text articles are available.
A deductive argument in which either the conclusion or a premise is implied instead of explicitly stated is referred to as which of the following?


a. Equivocation

b. Enthymeme

c. Literal analogy

d. Figurative analogy
The correct answer is B. An enthymeme is a deductive argument that is implied rather than stated. When listening to speeches, it is important to notice what information has been implied in addition to what has been stated.
Which of the following ethical theories encourages public speakers to speak truthfully and use sound, supporting evidence?


a. Credibility-centered ethics

b. Ends and means

c. Situation ethics

d. Social utility
The correct answer is A. Credibility-centered ethics promotes speakers to be competent and trustworthy in order to increase their credibility with listeners. Speakers should avoid any statements or actions that might cause listeners to disbelieve the information being presented.
Which of the following should be avoided during a speech to ensure language clarity?


a. Figurative language

b. Sentence fragments

c. Contractions

d. Homophones
The correct answer is D. Homophones, which are words that sound the same but have different meanings, should be avoided in a speech. Listeners may misunderstand which word the speaker is using.
What is the primary advantage of using research material from a monthly periodical instead of a book?


a. Information is reliable

b. Information is easy to locate

c. Information is more detailed

d. Information is current
The correct answer is D. Information from a monthly periodical will be more current than information from a book, which takes time to publish. Large libraries typically subscribe to electronic databases that index articles in magazines and academic journals.
Which of the following terms characterizes statements such as "all women are afraid of guns" or "all tall people excel at basketball"?


a. Cultural insensitivity

b. Racial profiling

c. Stereotyping

d. Political bias
The correct answer is C. Stereotyping occurs when people develop oversimplified concepts about specific groups of people. Assumptions are made that all members of a certain group think and act the same way.
The behavior that a speaker desires from listeners after giving a speech is referred to as which of the following?


a. Emotional appeal

b. Emotional impact

c. Appeal to action

d. Speech effectiveness
The correct answer is C. An appeal to action is often used to conclude persuasive speeches. The speaker hopes that after listeners have heard the arguments they will be persuaded to act.
Which type of argument is being used in a statement such as "more people will travel this summer because the price of gas has fallen dramatically"?


a. Argument from causation

b. Argument from example

c. Argument from analogy

d. Argument from sign
The correct answer is A. Argument from causation indicates that one event brings about a predictable effect. For example, if gas prices have dropped, and we know that low gas prices mean more summer travel, then we can expect more people to travel.