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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the valves of the Vocal Tract? How are they different from the valves of the articulatory system?
-aryepiglottic folds, false VFs, true VFs
Compare measures of average Fo and Fo Variability. Explain their use in clinical situation
av: measures average Fo over utterance. Helps to determine if voice disorder occurs in Fo

var: measured in standard deviation. can indicate level of vocal range--low range can indicate disorder
Why Fo is different in children, women, and men (anatomically)
children: short thin vocal folds vibrate very quickly
Women: longer and thicker than children
Men: longer and thicker than women
Why Fo Variabilty can be an important indicator of normal or disordered speech
-reduced range can indicate disorder
-should have little variabilty when sustaining vowel
Three ways that objective measures of F and I can assist clinicians in evaluating and treating patiends with neuro disorders
-Provides objective support of treatment working (e.g., in Fo after working on laryngeal tension)
-Provides online visual feedback of amplitude and frequency levels and variation, thus able to treat laryngeal control, prosody, pitch and loudness.
-Previous assumptions based on perception were found to be false once instrumentation was implemented.
Compare functions of diaphragm with internal and external intercostals in respiration
D: lowers when contracted to increase volume in lungs and cause inspiration
ExI: contract to elevate ribcase to increase volume in front-back and lateral direction
InI: contract to pull down on rib cage and cause exhalation
Describe changes in lung volume from infancy to old
baby= small volume
25-50= max volume
old=smaller volume than when younger
What is an EGG?
-meausured VF function noninvasively
-current passes through thyroid cartilage
-VF opening->more resistance->less currenth thru->down slope
-VF closing->less resistance->more current thru->up slope
-produces Lx wave, Voltage/Time
How does voicing affect respiration
-location moves from nose to mouth
-ratio of in/exhale goes from 40/60 to 90/10
-volume of air 10%VC to 20-25%VC
-muscle activity passive->active
What is a normal s/z ratio?
What is the impact of Parkinson's Disease on respiration, phonation, and articulation?
-reduces VC and P(oral)
-decreased intelligability
-monotone, distorted articulation, breathy, weak voice
What is the impact of ALS on respiration, phonation, and articulation?
greater Jitter and Shimmer levels
What voice disorder can result from extubation?
Intubation Granuloma--weak, breathy, hoarse voice caused by bilateral scar tissue on VFs
-Varyin degree of hoarseness and breathyness, possible fry
Identify and give voice quality
Unilateral Paralysis
-breathy, low amplitude
Identify and give vocal quality
Conact ulcers
-caused by reflux and aspiration, causes hoarsness
intubation granuloma
-weak, breathy, hoarse voice (bilateral scar tissue)
Compare Cricothyroid to Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscles in function and structure
CT-Changes PITCH by stretching the VFs (tensing them)

L.CA-pulls VFs together (down ad in), closes membranous glottis
Identify muslces that
-ABduct the Vfs
ADDUCTION: Lateral cricoarytenoid, interarytenoid (transverse and oblique),

ABDUCTION: posterior cricoarytenoid
Describe how vocal pitch and loudness are regulated
Pitch: tension in VFs (tighter for higher)

Loudness: Pressure below VFs (more for louder)
Why the human voice is nearly periodic and not completely periodic
VFs do not vibrate in completely even, periodic manner due to tissue and mechanical characteristics. Always small flucutaions in pitch and loudness
Physologic and acoustic characteristics of
Pulse: low pitch, creaky popping sounds; VFs closed for most of vibratory cycle, use less air pressure to vocalize

Falsetto: Fo is high, thinner tone, slightly breathy; VFs very long and stiff, glottis tight and narrow, not as full a vibration as modal and pulse
Describe levels of bronchial tree
Larynx, Trachea, primary Bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles
A, H, O-Hyoid Bone
B, G Epiglottis
C, M, P- Sup. horn of Thyroid Cart.
D, L Q - Inf. Horn of TC
E, K, R Cricoid cart.
F, I, S- thyroid cart
J Artyenoid Cart.s
A epiglottis
B Hyoid Bone
C Thyroid Cart.
D. Vocal Ligament
E. Cricoid Cart.
F. Trachea
H. Vocalis muscle
I. True VFs
J. False VFs
A. Modal
B. Falsetto
C. Pulse
D. Breathiness
E. Hoarseness