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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Stop burst spectral characteristics help to identify whether stop was
vilabial, alveolar or velar
Sound of Fricatives is generated by...
Air turbulence. Because air is pressurized on one side of a constriction and it flows through a very small opening.
Fricatives sound different from one another because they have...
different places of articulation; resonating cavities on either side of the constriction will vary in shape and size
Resonating cavities that are 'downstream' or anterior to the constriction and larger will resonate...
lower frequencies
Place of articulation determines the
spectral characteristics of the fricative
Fricative is like an extended version of
the burst of a stop
2 sound sources to produce a voiced fricative
1-vibration of vocal folds
2-turbulence that is created at the constriction
Sound source of voiceless fricative
sound generated only at constriction
Explain physiologic difference between voiced and voiceless fricative
Voiceless: all air pressure from the lungs is directed to the constriction which produces a strong fricative because all of the pressure is directed to that one sound source.

Voiced: actual frication at constriction not as vigorous because larynx uses up some of the pressure created by lungs to create vocal fold oscillation. Voicing with frication sounds add together to create different type of sound with harmonic and turbulence.
FFT on spectral slice
more jagged fuzzy line
LPC on spectral slice
more solid line which outlines the envelope of spectrum
compare and contrast /s/ with /sh/
/s/ on spectral slice stronger energy toward the middle of spectrum and diminishes as you move to the right. To produce /s/ lips are retracted; open space in front of /s/.

/sh/ more energy distributed toward the lower frequency end of hte spectrum and tapers off rapidly to right. Lips are rounded which creates cavity in front of constriction.
/f/ is a ____ intensity sound
low
/f/ and /th/ are
nonstridents
in /th/ sound, energy is
widely distributed and not particularly intense in any one region
/s/ and /sh/ are...
stridents
production of the two fricatives 's' and 'sh' becomes rather similar
some types of dysarthria
Nonstridents
f, v, theta, thorn
More difficult to distinguish from one another
nonstridents
Why are non stridents more difficult to differentiate?
Spectral shapes broadly similar; acoustically weak
Phone acts like a ____ ____ ___. This does what? Which makes what difficult?
band pass filter; eliminates highest & lowest frequencies; making it difficult to tell fricatives apart due to lack of high frequency energy
Affricate is a combo of ...
stop and fricative in rapid succession that we hear as single sound
2 affricates
ch (urch) and j (udge)
the nasals
m, n, ng
nasals are _____ different than other consonants
qualitatively
why do vowels between two nasals become nasalized?
velopharyngeal port is open and contributes to damping of energy that enters nasal cavity
How do you produce a nasal?
Open velopharyngeal port and create an obstruction in oral cavity
all nasal sounds are
voiced
determines the acoustic characteristics of nasal consonant
place in oral cavity where the obstruction is made
/m/ has a _____ resonating cavity
large
nasal with most posterior constriction in oral cavity
ng
looking on a spectrogram it is not easy to tell one from another
nasals
nasals are _____ in intensity. why?
low. soft tissues of nasal cavity attenuate
name the glides
/w/ and /j/ (ya)
why called glide
tongue is moving/gliding during production
can be compared to dipthongs
glides
Glides are A.K.A ____ & ______ . why?
approximants (approximate certain positions) or semivowels (1/2 vowel; relatively open vocal tract and phonation)
Term approximate is also used for
/r/ and /l/
How is /w/ similar to /u/
involves lip rounding and elevation of back of tongue
How is /j/ similar to /i/
high front constriction
name the liquids
/r/, /l/
Liquids are ______All the way through and have a characteristic ________
All the way through; formant pattern
F3 for /r/ is
Low. Characteristic dip in F3 on spectrogram
/r/ and /l/ are ______ in Korean
allophone variants; version of phoneme that might be produced slightly differently under different conditions
Liquids are ____ to master because of ________ in their production
Difficult; muscular patterns involved
Not typically sustained. Rather it is the Movement of the formants that is characteristic of the production of these sounds in normal speech production
liquids: r and l
_____ __ ____during formant transition can be a cue to the listener as to sound being produced
Rate of change
formants 1 and 2 all have the same pattern (increase in frequency) for these sounds b, w , or u to i. Change is most rapid for ___ slower for ____and slowest for ___
b, w, u
Moving from d, /j/ and i to u creates a rise in the 1st formant and a fall in the 2nd formant. The change is most rapid for ___, slower for ____, and slowest for _____
d, /j/, i