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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acoustic Reflex
Middle ear relfez that attenuates intense sounds of 80 dB or more. aka stapedial reflex
Basilar Membrane
Base of the cochlear duct; basal portion nearest the typanic membrane is narrow and stiff, with membeane becoming wider and more compliant toward the apical portion farthest from the TM
Waxy substance produced in the external auditory meatus
Snail-shaped spiral canal housing the nerve receptors for hearing
Cochlear Duct
structure that divides the cochlea along most of it's length; aka cochlear partition
Conductive Hearing Loss
HL caused by problems in the transmission of sound to the inner ear
External Auditory Meatus
channel leading from the pinna to the TM; aka ear canal

Imbedance mismatch
measure of the opposition of a system to a flow of energy through it, measured in ohms.

difference in impedance between two mediums
Malleus--touches TM
Stapes--touches OW
Organ of Corti
sensory nerve receptor for hearing, consisting of rows of inner and outer hair cells
Compare the functions of the ear canal and the TM
Ear canal: protects middle ear. is 1/4 wave resonator, important in sound detection, boosts amplitute of high frequency sounds.

TM: transduces sound energy to mechanical energy
oval window
Stapes makes contact here to transmit mechanical wave into cochlea.
round window
opening between the scala tympani and the middle ear, covered with membrane
sensorineural HL
HL due to disease or damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve
Describe structure of middle ear and how it overcomes the impedance mismatch

Increase FORCE at stapes x1.3, area ratio 17:1 from TM to OW = more PRESSURE
tonotopic organization
spatial organization of the basilar membrane in terms of frequency distribution
changing energy from one form (medium) to another
Discuss the funtions of the cochlea as it relates to the tonotopic theory
lower f's activate nerves at apex, higher f's activate nerves at base due to tonotopic organization
vestibular memberane
roof of the cochlear duct
Function of the organ of corti
contains hair cells embedded in basilar membrane. transmits sound into electrical impulses as BM vibrates and stimulates HC's
Role of the Vestibular System
monitors position of head in space. helps with balance control
How the VIII cranial nereve travels to the Auditory Complex
Where does decussation take place in the Brain Stem for the auditory fibres
between Pons and Medulla
Function of Outer and Middle ears
To boost sound signal and overcome impedance mismatch
amount of displacement off an object from its rest position
wave in which cycles do not take the same amount of time to occur
attenuation rate
rate in dB per octave at which a resonator's amplitute of response is attenuated
range of f'd that a resonator will transmit
boyles law
states that a dry gas's volume varies inversly with pressure, given a constant temperature
broadly tuned
resonator that transmits a wide range of frequencies
cgs system
system of measurement using centimeters, grams, and seconds. Dynes is in this system
complex sound
sounds with two or more f's
cut-off frequency
F(sub)c, f at which a resonant system is unresponsive
decreasing in amplitude
unit of measure of force and pressure in cgs system
restorying frce that brings an object back to its orginal size, shape, or position after having been displaced or deformed
fourier analysis
mathematical procedure to identitfy the individual sinusoids in a complex sound
rate of vibration of an object
volume velocity
aka rate of flow
graph with time on x axis and amplitude on y axis
fundamental frequency
lowest frequency of a complex periodic sound
frequencies above Fo in a complex periodic sounds
tendency of matter to remain at rest or in motion uless acted on by an outside force
combining of waved in terms of areas of high ans low pressure
measurement of dynes/cm2
unit of measure of pressure in the modernized metric system
amount of time it takes for a cycle of a wave to complete itself
pure tone
sound with only one frequency componant
area of negative pressure in a sound wave traveling through a medium
Describe how elasticity and inertia interact to maintain vibrations, and then what happens when damping occurs
inertia keeps molecules moving once they are struck, and elasticity tries to restore them to to starting position. as molecules move back to rest, they overshoot spot due to inertia of motion it took to move back there. Back/forth motion decreased in amplitude due to damping
Explain how pharynx->nose structures impact resonance in the human voice
Irregularly shaped resonators are broadly tuned and heavily damped, so many freqencies are allowed and sounds can change quickly
What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
Frequency is measured in cycles/sec and is a physical measurement. Pitch is the psychoacoustical interpretation of frequency.