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53 Cards in this Set

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technique for generating ideas either alone or, more usually, in a small group.
Compliance-gaining strategies
behaviors directed at resisting the persuasive attempts of others.
Be helpful and friendly in order to get work colleagues in a good mood so they will be more likely to comply with your request. After treating colleagues to lunch you might say, “I’d really like to be elected chair of the new personnel committee; I’m hoping I can count on your support.”
Promise to reward people if they comply with your request: “With me on the personnel committee, you’ll have a great chance at a promotion"
Positive self-feelings
Show that people will feel better if they comply with your request or feel worse if they don’t comply: “You’ll feel a lot more comfortable with me on the committee.” Or, “You’ll regret having someone on that committee who doesn’t know you as well as I do.”
Moral appeals
Stress the moral and ethical reasons why your colleagues should comply. “It’s only fair that you vote for me; I’m clearly the most qualified.”
Group decision-making methods
Decision by authority, majority rule, consensus
Information-sharing group types
Purpose is to acquire new information or skills through sharing knowledge. All members have something to teach and something to learn; a good example is a group of students sharing information to prepare for an exam.
Nominal Group
a method of problem solving that uses limited discussion and confidential voting to obtain a group decision. Extremely useful for increasing the number of ideas generated by the group members. Helpful when some members are reluctant to voice their opinions about a controversial issue- for example, (what can be done about sexism, racism, or homophobia in the workplace,” “office romantic relationships,” or “ways to downsize.” This technique can be accomplished in a relatively short period of time.
Delphi Method
A group of experts is established but there is no interaction among them; instead, they communicate by repeatedly responding to questionnaires.
Quality Circles
groups of workers (usually 6 to 12) whose task it is to investigate and make recommendations for improving the quality of some organizational function. Often considered one of the major reasons for success of Japanese businesses, where it’s widely used
Round table
Group members arrange themselves in a circular or semicircular pattern. Share information or solve the problem without any set pattern of who speaks when.
Consists of symposium speeches (series of prepared presentations much like public speeches) and a forum consisting largely of questions and comments from the audience and responses from the symposium speakers.
Democratic Leadership
Providing direction but allowing the group to develop and progress the way members wish. The leader encourages members to determine goals and procedures and stimulates members’ self-direction and self actualization.
Goes along with members, passively accepts the ideas of others, and functions more as an audience than as an active member
The aggressor or blocker
expresses negative evaluation of members and attacks the group, is generally disagreeable, and opposes other members or their suggestions regardless of their merit.
The recognition seeker and self-confessor
try to focus attention on themselves, boast about their accomplishments rather than the task at hand, and express their own feelings rather than focus on the group.
The dominator
tries to run the group or members by pulling rank, flattering members, or acting the role of boss.
is the practice of posting messages that you know are false or outrageous viewpoints just so you can watch the group members correct you or get emotionally upset by your message.
The encourager or harmonizer
provides members with positive reinforcement through social approval or praise for their ideas and meditates the various differences between group members.
The compromiser
tries to resolve conflict between his or her ideas and those of others and offers compromises.
Group task roles
Help the group focus on achieving its goals. Effective members serve several roles.
The information seeker or giver
asks for or gives facts and opinions, seeks clarification of issues being discusses, and presents facts and opinions to group members.
The evaluator-critic
evaluates the group’s decisions, questions the logic or practicality of the suggestions, and provides the group with both positive and negative feedback.
The procedural technician or recorder
takes care of various mechanical duties, such as distributing group materials and arranging the seating; writes down the group’s activities, suggestions, and decisions, and/or serves as the group’s memory
Laissez-faire Leadership
A leadership style in which the leader takes no (or very little) initiative in directing or suggesting courses of action. Allows the group to develop and progress on its own.
Situational Theory of Leadership
The leader adjusts his or her focus between task accomplishment and member satisfaction on the basis of the specific group situation
Traits Approach to Leadership
Views the leader as the one who possesses those characteristics or skills (or traits) that contribute to leadership. Valuable for stressing the characteristics that often (but not always) distinguish leaders from nonleaders
Motivated Sequence: Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, Action
Pattern of arranging information to motivate your audience to respond positively to your purpose.
Make the audience give you their undivided attention. Gain attention by asking a rhetorical question, referring to specific audience members, or using dramatic or humorous story
Audience must feel that need exists. State the need or problem as it exists or will exist. Illustrating the need with specific examples, illustrations, statistics, testimony, and other forms of support. Pointing to how this need affects your specific listeners-for example, their financial status, career goals, or individual happiness.
Present the “solution” that satisfies the need you demonstrated in step 2. Should convince the audience that what you are informing them about or persuading them to do will satisfy the need- A clear statement (with examples and illustrations if necessary) of what you want the audience to learn, believe, or do. A statement of how or why what you are asking them to learn, believe, or do will lead to satisfying the need identified in step 2
Intensifies the audience’s feelings or believes. Can be accomplished by…Demonstrating the positive benefits to be derived if this advocated proposal is put into operation or demonstrating the negative consequences that will occur if your plan is not followed.
Telling the audience what they should do to satisfy the need you have identified. State exactly what audience members should do, appeal to your listeners’ emotions, and give the audience guidelines for future action
Structure-function Organizational Pattern
Useful in informative speeches in which you want to discuss how something is constructed-its structure-and what it does-its function. May be useful in a speech where you want to explain what an organization is and what it does
Topical Organizational Pattern
Divides speech topic into subtopics or component parts
Movements of the speech organs as they modify and interrupt the air stream from the lungs. Different movements of the tongue, lips, teeth, palate, and vocal cords produce different sounds.
Extemporaneous Speech Delivery
Useful when exact timing and wording are not required.
Eye Contact (impact on perceptions of speaker)
Most important single aspect of bodily communication. In some cultures, eye contact that is too intense may be considered offensive. If a speaker does not maintain eye contact they appear distant, unconcerned, and less trustworthy
Use of extreme exaggeration. Ex: I’m so hungry I could eat a horse
Attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects. Ex: This room cries for activity, my car is tired and needs water.
A connectedness, relatedness, and a oneness with your listeners. Created by referring directly to your listeners, using you; say “you’ll” enjoy reading…”
Impromptu Speech Delivery
Involves speaking without preparation
Experts’ opinions or to witnesses’ accounts. Supports your ideas by adding a note of authority.
Encompasses a person’s ability and knowledge. To establish, tell your listeners of your special experience or training, cite a variety of research sources, and stress the particular competencies of your sources.
The individual’s honesty and basic nature; moral qualities. To establish, stress your fairness, your concern for enduring values, and your similarity with the audience.
Moving audience to act (how to do it)
First, you must be realistic about what you want the audience to do. Second, stress the specific advantages of these behaviors to your audience. Make sure to give them concrete, specific reasons for why they will benefit from the actions. Third, demonstrate your own willingness to do the same. As a general rule, never ask the audience to do what you have not done yourself.
The process of forming conclusions on the basis of evidence. You might reason that because college graduates earn more money than nongraduates (evidence), Jack and Jill should go to college if they wish to earn more money (conclusion).
Reasoning from Causes and Effects:
First, you can reason from a cause to an effect: you can draw the conclusion that a specific cause is producing a specific effect. Second, you can reason from effect to cause: you can draw the conclusion that a specific effect was in face produced by a specific cause
Reasoning from Sign
Consists of drawing a conclusion on the basis of the presence of signs because they all frequently occur together. Ask these questions:
- Do the signs necessitate the conclusion?
- Are there other signs that point to the same conclusion?
- Are there contradictory signs?
Reasoning from Specific Instance
Examine several specific items and then make a conclusion about the whole. This form of reasoning is useful when you want to develop a general principle or conclusion but cannot examine every single instance. Apply these tests:
- Were enough specific instances examined?
- Were the specific instances representative?
- Are there significant exceptions?
Testimonial Fallacy
the authority or image of some positively evaluated person to gain your approval or of some negatively evaluated person to gain your rejection
The individual’s dynamism or forcefulness. To establish, demonstrate positiveness, act assertively, and express enthusiasm.