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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Specific language impairment
developmental language disorder
aphasia is an example of this disorder
acquired language disorder
R's and L's are pronounced wrong
articulation speech disorder
hoarse
aphonia
disphonia
Voice speech disorders
stuttering and cluttering
Fluency speech disorder
Oti tis media, middle ear infection, otisclerosis(stiff bones)...is not permanent
conductive hearing disorder
Age related(presbyousis) or noise induced loss....IS permanent
sensorineural hearing disorder
12 - 18 breaths per cycle
includes rib cage & diaphragm movt
The respitory system
depends on major and minor pectorals, intercostals, and diaphragm
Inhalation
Needs abs, obliques, and transverse abs
Exhalation
priamry function is protecting the trachea
secondary is voicing
also called the voice box
larynx
locatted on the larynx
helps w/ swallowing
epiglottis
pull the vocal folds apart
laryingal abductors
pulls the vocal cords together
laryingal adductors
depends on major and minor pectorals, intercostals, and diaphragm
Inhalation
modifications of sound waves from larynx
includes pharynx, oral cavity(mandible, tongue), Velum, hard palate, nasal cavity
The resonance system
first cavity on top of larynx
facilitates passage of air/food
also important in making shapes/sounds
pharynx
mandible determines size & tongue helps w/ flexibility in this cavity
oral cavity
soft and bendable
has job of flapping close and keeping out air from your nose
velum ( soft palate )
velum opens and closes this
disorders would include
hyponasality - no flow of nasal air
hypernasality - too much air in cavity
velopharyngeal port
facials, gestures, writing, sign language, posture
non-verbal communication
air in the chest
decreases as cavity gets larger
increases as cavity gets smaller
pulmonary air pressure
making specific sounds
articulation
sounds that glide from one sound to another
two vowels together
dipthongs
can extend and shorten
made of facial muscles
lips
brain and the spinal cord
Central nervous system
large part of brain w/ 2 hemishperes
cerebrum
ball in the back of the brain
cerebellum
majority of brain is responsible for emotion, intelect, problem solving, personality
frontal lobe
reading and writing, spacial-relations, vestibular mechanism (balnace,orientation, posture)
Parietal lobe
viwsion center as brain receives input it translates, helps percieve 3 dimensions, staring
Occipital lobe
emotional coordination, memory, language comprehension, speech, hearing
Temporal lobe
body of fibers that runs through the middle of the brain it lets one side of the brain know what the other is doing
corpus callosum
dark rim around brain
where all cell bodies live
neurons located here(support brain act.)
everything originates here
Cortex/gray matter
provides channels for brain impulses to travel ( highways)
w/ the help of Myelin its quick and direct
White matter
Below the cortex
Subcortacal
Full of sensory receptors
dark
thalamus
subcorigal gray matter that is conected ot cerebellum
impaired movt if damaged
basal ganglia
located in frontal lobe
programs muscles in speech mechanism
if damaged cant speak, but can understand
Broca's area
located in posterior of temporal/parietal lobes
if damaged cant understand language
Wernicke's area
overproduction of these
ones that arent used lots are ignored
synaptic connections
reduced brain size
fewer cells w/i layers of cortex
smaller cerebral size
reduced metabolic act. in language
Down's syndrome
Therapy for 0-3 yrs.
based on fact that brain pruses and is based on experiences
Early Intervention
Certain regions of brain are necessary for a particular skill/function
Cerebral localization persepective
emphasizes the interconnectedness of functinally related brain regions
Connectionist perspective
Connects to the Outside world
upper section is cranial nerves
Periphereral Nervous System
12 pairs of nerves that enter or exit the CNS w/i the cranial space occuppied by the brain and brainstem
Cranial nerves
motor brain
fine tunes movt
connected to canals for balance
cerebellum
coordinates of visual and auditory reflexes
controls/assists w/ eye movts and postural reflexes
Midbrain
carries sensory and motor info that deals w/ balance and hearing
Pons
blends into ths spinal cord and contains life-support centers concerned w/ respiration and circulation
Medulla
Jaw movts and sensation in face
Trigeminal
facial muscles movts and sensation to the anterior 1/3 of tongue/palate
Facial
pharynx movts and sensation to posterior 2/3 of the tongue
glossopharyngeal
motor to the laryn, pharynx, soft palate, iaphragm, and heart.
sensory to the lungs, pharynx, larynx
Vagus
motor the the large muscles of the head, neck, and shoulders
Accessory
motor the the tongue and supra laryngeal muscles
Hypoglossal
carries info from the brain out to the body and from body to brain
spinal cord
the essence of sound
motion
molecules bunch close together
compression
moleculs spread apart and return to normal locations
rarefaction
rate of vibration
frequency
loudness
measured in decibels
intensity
pure tone w/ one frequency, not natural
sine wave
more than 1 frequency
more irregular but 3 cycles
complex waveform
completely random noice containing all frequencies w/ no cycle
white noise
visually represents sound over a duration of time
dark bands are vowels
spectrogram
sounds
phoneme
tempo, rhythm, and intonation with which the sounds and words are spoken
prosody
will identify children who disarticulate but wont identify problem of study it
should be natural speech
screening
designed to test most diffucult sounds for children
articulation test
weakness, parylasis, slowness, incoordination, sensory loss, hypernasal, disturbed cvoice quality, abnormal prosody
Dysarthria
no muscle weakness or paralysis, lesion in brain where motor movt is, speech inconsistent
Apraxia
four articulation errors
fisha for fish
dith for dish
ba for ball
lisp
addition
substitution
ommission
distortion
deletion of final consonant
deletion of unstressed syllable
cluster reduction
Syllable - simplification processes
Regressive assimilation
progressive assimilation
assimilation processes
stopping
fronting
substitution processes
either side of midline of upper lip to right/left of bone that holds upper front teeth and along the midline of velum or hard palate
Fusing
Clefting
a number of motor sensory conditions that result from damage to or imperfect development of the CNS
motor delay
Cerebral Palsy
Severe tightness of muscles
respirator and voice breaks/very unclear
Spasticity
Involuntary muscle contractions
monotone voice
Athetosis
lack of balance, severe problems w/ coordinatin movt's
speech is slurred (drunken)
Ataxia
vegatative sounds
cry undifferentiated
very little tongue movt
loves contrast/human face
Reflexive vocalizations/phonation stage/preverbal stage
velar sounds predominate
tongue only goes in and out
any vowel sounds are in back
larynx is sitting high
Cooing and Gooing Stage
volume and intonation variation
tongue out
smiles initially
babbling is emerging/more control
percieve segments of speech
like rasberries/whispering
Vocal Play/Expansion Stage
consonant vowel
repeat same sequence
larynx dropping
sitting unassisted
JOINT REFERENCE
using gestures
Canonical Babbling stage/reduplicated
sounds like nonsense but carries intonation of our language
last step before first word
Jargon stage/variegated babbling
All means by which info is transmitted between a sender and a receiver
communication
involves the coding of meaning into a system of arbitrary symbols recognized by the community
language
includes awareness of sound, distinguish among sounds, processing sounds that occur at a rapid rate
hearing
pbdtkg
brief cessation of airflow followed by sudden release of sound
sound/plosive
paired consanants w/ same manner and place of production, but differ in dimension of voicing
cognates
f,v, s, z, h
articulators forming a tight constriction that produces some audible noice from the airflow
fricatives
all 9 fricatives
can go on as long as airflow is present
continuants
combinatons of a stop and a fricative
affricate
m,n,nj
velopharyngeal port open
nasal
r,l
liquids/laterals
w,j
semivowels that are consonants b/c of added constriction
Glide
grouped by place of articulation, manner, voiced/unvoiced
consonants
position and height of tongue and configuration of the lips
vowels