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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the irreversible process of understanding and sharing meaning
person who is presenting an oral message to a listener
whatever a sender communicates to someone else
means by which a message is communicated (phone, voice, internet, etc)
person who receives the sender's message
the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a receiver to a sender
a. Positive
b. Negative
c. Person/ Message focused
d. Immediate/ Delayed
anything that impedes the communication of a message
Physical Interference
external noise (screech of cars, hallway noise) or internal noise (hungry)
Physiological Interference
physical barriers within the speaker or listener (can't see, hearing or memory loss)
Semantic Interference
assignment of different meanings by speaker and listener (using different languages, jargon use)
the time and place the communication occurs
Stage Fright
anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience
Fight-Flight-Freeze Response
when our minds perceive a real or imagined threat, the brain is triggered to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to prepare the body to fight or flee from the situation. The resulting sensations from the biochemical reactions in our bodies are often labeled excessive "nervousness." The resulting behaviors can include avoiding the situation (fleeing), struggling through the nerve-racking experience (fighting) or mind blanking/ immobilization (freezing).
How to deal with Communication Apprehension (nervousness)
1. Acquire speaking experience
2. Practice the speech many times beforehand
3. Use the power of visualization
4. Realize that your nervousness is not visible
5. Deep abdominal breathing
6. Cognitive restructuring
Cognitive restructuring
technique used to systematically rebuild your thoughts regarding public speaking from negative/ anxious (cognitive distortions) to positive and affirming.
Cognitive Restructuring
1. Discover your anxious thoughts and create a list of ultimate worries and negative self-talk about public speaking
2. Identify the cognitive distortions and irrational beliefs on your list
3. Develop a list of positive coping statements to replace your cognitive distortions and irrational beliefs
4. Practice the new statements until they automatically replace your old beliefs
Cognitive Distortions
erroneous, unrealistic, negative thoughts
Peephole Thinking
means you focus on one negative detail to the exclusion of all other information.
Psychic Reading
means you anticipate the worst outcome or try to predict the future or what others are thinking.
Microscopic Viewing
means you look at a speech as an enormous event
Emotional Reasoning
means you rely on feelings to determine facts
All-or-Nothing Categorizing
means you believe if you make a mistake, your entire speech is a total disaster or failure.
Nonverbal Communication
Any mode of communication that exists outside the spoken word
Types of Nonverbal Communication
1. Physical Appearance and First Impressions
2. Proxemics - the study of the use of personal space
Edward T. Hall 4 Zones of Personal Space
a. Public: 12' and beyond
b. Social/ Professional: 4' -12'
c. Personal 18" - 4'
d. Intimate 0" - 18"
the study of touch
voice intonation, pitch (highness/ lowness), rate (speed), volume
frequent use of distracters and interrupters that slip out when you speak (umm, you know, like)
the study of eye contact
Intensifying Facial Expressions
helps you exaggerate a feeling
Deintensifying Facial Expressions
helps you underplay a feeling
Neutralizing Facial Expressions
helps you to hide feelings
Masking Facial Expressions
helps to replace or substitute the expression of one emotion for the emotion you're really feeling
large or small movements of the hands and arms that communicate within a society or culture
Affect Displays
nonverbal movement of the face, the hands, and the body that communicate emotional meaning
the study of body movement and position
Proximal Neutralization
sit next to your worst enemy to neutralize him
the study of how we use time
Functions of Nonverbal Communication
1. To Repeat
2. To Replace
3. To Compliment
4. To Contradict
5. To regulate interactions
a nonverbal cue that has meaning for a certain cultural group and substitutes for a word and translates almost directly into a word phase
complements and accnts the verbal message
sends a mixed message
helps regulate and coordinate communication interactions among people
Challenges to Nonverbal Communications
1. Quantity- huge number increase potential of miscommunication
2. Constancy - we are always communicating
3. Awareness
4. Individual Differences
5. Gender Differences
6. Cultural Differences
Overcoming Challenges to Competence
1. Be mindful of nonverbal messages
2. Respect Differences
3. Integrate verbal and nonverbal communication
Communication Power Nonverbally
1. Walk confidently not too quickly. Hurried people appear powerless.
2. Stand close to your listeners - creates greater immediacy and is more persuasive
3. Dress conservatively. Conservative clothing is associated with power and status.
4. Select chairs you can get into and out of easily.
Nonverbal and Verbal Meaning Percentage
65% of a message's meaning comes from nonverbal behavior
35% of a message's meaning comes from verbal content
Good Delivery
1. Volume - loud! Loud = confident
2. Inflection - vary your voice
3. Gestures - relaxed, natural, appropriate gestures
4. Eye Contact - allows to connect
5. Stance - audience invasion
6. Dress - wear what is comfortable, a little nicer
7. Silences & Pauses - emphasize a point
8. Filler Words - Avoid
9. Make each word count
Communication Accommodation Theory
that you adjust/ accommodate to the speaking style of you listeners in order to gain benefits (believability, likability...)
Good Non Verbal Signals
1. General appearance - posture and clothes
2. Facial expression (happy, interested, confident)
3. Eye contact (look at everyone for 2-3 seconds before you begin talking)
4. Movement (intentional is good)
Do Not's of Delivery
- Don't apologize for illness/ lack or preparation
- Don't begin saying "OK I'm ready" or "Hi"
- Don't begin "Um"
- Don't end by saying "That's it. The End"
- Don't ask how much time is left or acknowledge the timer in any way
- Don't intentionally insult your audience
- Don't keep touching your hair
- Don't swing your arms and clap them!
- Don't cross your legs
loudness or softness of the speaker's voice
the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice
changes in pitch or tone of the speaker's voice
a constant pitch or tone of voice
the speed of the speaker's voice
a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech
Vocal Variety
changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume
the accepted standard of sounds and rhythm for words in a given language
the physical production of particular speech sounds
a regional variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
involves noticing, organizing and interpreting data about people, events and situations
Perception involves Noticing:
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
a. We form certain expectation of people or events
b. We communicate those expectations of people or events
c. People tend to respond to these cues by adjusting their behavior to match the expectations
d. The Outcome is that the original expectation becomes true
Perception Involves Organizing:
Stereotypes - link our perceptions of people, events, activities, and situations to predictions and anticipations
Allness - the tendency to conclude that what is believed to be true of one part is true for the whole
Individual differences that combine to influence our perception and our responses:
1. Physical characteristics
2. Psychological state
3. Cultural background
4. Gender
5. Media
automatic process that involves the physiological reception of sounds
a five step process of receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating and responding to verbal and/or nonverbal messages
Communication Activities of Americans
53% Listening
17% Reading
16& Speaking
14% Writing
Appreciative Listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment
Empathic Listening
Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker
Comprehensive Listening
listening to understand message
Critical Listening
Listening (w/o biases) to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting/ rejecting it
Challenges to Listening:
Physical Barriers
a. Interferences from the physical environment
b. Distracting characteristics of the speaker or the lstener
Challenges to Listening:
Psychological Barriers
c. Mental and emotional distractions
d. Speaking rate is 125 words/ minute, but we can understand up to 300 wpm
e. Message overload - trying to listen to too many messages at the same time
Challenges to Listening:
Interaction Barriers
f. Verbal battles - little or no listening occurs b/c listener is planning counterattack
g. Inflammatory language - trigger words are phrases that cause emotional reactions
Challenges to Listening:
Cultural Differences
How to Become a more Competent Listener
1. Remember the main points of the message
2. Provide appropriate verbal and nonverbal feedback
3. Ask questions to clarify
4. Paraphrase the message to achieve full comprehension and clarity
5. Resist distractions
6. Suspend judgment
7. Don't be diverted by a speaker's appearance or delivery
8. Make listening a priority
Denotative meaning
dictionary definition
Connotative meaning
what the word suggests or implies
Principles of Language
1. Language influences our perception of reality
2. Language is shaped by culture
3. Language reflects what is important
4. Language is symbolic
a sign or word used to define a person, idea, or object
Meanings of Messages:
1. Meanings are in people
2. Meanings depend on context
Deficit Language
focuses attention on people's deficiencies and problems
1. Use accurate language
2. Use clear language
3. Use correct pronunciation
4. Use concrete words rather than abstract
5. use concise language - clutter is using many more words than necessary to express an idea
6. Use vivid language
7. Use appropriate language
Concrete words
words that refer to tangible objects
Abstract words
words that refer to ideas or concepts
the use of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas
an explicit comparison between things using like or as
an implicit comparison between things, not using like or as
Using language appropriately:
1. To the occasion
2. To the audience
3. To the topic
4. To the speaker
the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
figure of repetition that occurs when the first word or set of words in one sentence, clause or phrase is/are repeated at the beginning of successive sentences, clauses or phrases
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in a parallel structure
a figure of reasoning in which one or more questions is/are asked and then answered, often at length, by one and the same speaker, raising and responding to one's own question(s)
Avoid Language:
1. filler words
2. too many intensifiers
3. tag questions
4. self-critical statements
5. slang and vulagrity
Use Nonsexist Language:
1. Avoid generic use of "he"
2. Avoid the use of "man" when referring to men and women
3. Avoid stereotyping jobs and social roles by gender
4. Avoid unnecessary or patronizing gender labels
Sexist Language
language that promotes the stereotyping of people on the basis of gender
Nonsexist Language
language that does not stereotype people on the basis of gender
Politically Correct Language (PC)
refers to words and phrases that attempt to remove or compensate for any traces of sexism, racism, ageism, or any potentially derogatory meanings that might offend a group of people
the act of appropriating a disparaging term like the N-word and turning it into a term of endearment
the belief that one's group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
Focuses on the degrees of rightness and wrongness in human behavior
Guidelines for Ethical Speaking
1. Make sure your goals are ethically sound
2. Be fully prepared for each speech
3. Be honest in what you say
. Avoid name-calling and other forms of abusive language
Guidelines for Ethical Listening
1. Be courteous
2. Avoid prejudging the speaker
3. Provide honest and appropriate feedback
4. Reasoned skepticism - learn to judge material for worth & significance
(moral absolutism) there is a single, ultimate answer or solution to the question posed
the belief that one should do what produces the greatest overall good consequences for the most people, not just for onesef
Moral Relativism
there is no one way that is right or wrong for everyone
Ethical Egoism
to determine right or wrong action one should only look at how the consequences will affect him and act in the way which contributes most to his self-interest
presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own
Global Plagiarism
stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own
Patchwork Plagiarism
stealing ideas or language from 2 or 3 sources and passing them off as one's own
Incremental Plagiarism
failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that re borrowed from others
to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words
To be a competent public speaker:
1. Motivation
2. Knowledge
3. Skills
Impromptu Delivery
a speech delivered w/ little or no prep
Extemporaneous Delivery
a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes and delivered in a conversational manner
Manuscript Delivery
a speech that is written out word for word and simply read to the audience
Memorized Delivery
a speech that is fully written out and memorized ahead of time, then spoken word for word
Audience Analysis
the process a speaker uses to ascertain relevant facts and information about the listeners and the speaking situation that will shape how the speech is prepared and delivered
Personal Characteristics of Audience Analysis
a. Age
b. Household type
c. Education
d. Occupation
e. Income level
Psychological Characteristics of Audience Analysis
a. attitudes, beliefs and values
Cultural Characteristics of Audience Analysis
a. Groups that listeners are born in or grow up in (gender, race, ethnicity, ...)
b. Groups that listeners choose to belong to (clubs, political parties...)
Analyze the Situation:
1. Time - length of speech
2. Place - the environment and physical surroundings
Questions to ask in Public Speaking:
1. How many people are expected to attend?
2. How can I gain and hold their attention?
3. How should I organize my presentation?
4. Will there be a question and answer period?
5. Will audience members interrupt with questions?
6. How long should my talk last?
7. If I start late, am I still expected to end at a certain time?
8. What does this audience already know about this topic?
9. Will I be able to use visual aids?
10. How will the audience be dressed?
11. What is the stage format?
12. Will I have a microphone? Cordless? Handheld?
13. If I drive, where will I park?
14. Will somebody meet me?
15. Who will introduce me? Does this person need info from me?
Get information About the Audience By:
1. Interviewing
2. Questionnaires
3. Talking to someone who has already talked w/ the audience members
Selecting the speech topic:
1. Is this the best subject?
2. Do I know a lot about the subject or can I find more information on it?
3. Am I interested in the subject?
4. Is this subject suitable for my audience?
5. Can the subject or an aspect of the subject be discussed adequately in the time available?
Choose Speech Topics:
1. You know a lot about
2. You want to know more about
To pick a Speech Topic, You Can:
1. Brainstorm
2. Reference Search
3. Internet Search
4. Talk to family or friends
Thesis Statement
a one-sentence that sums up major ideas of a speech
Presentation Outline
a brief outline of key words or phrases used to jog a speaker's memory during the speech
Delivery Cues
directions on a speaker's index cards to help a speaker remember how he or she wants to deliver key parts of the speech
Get attention by Using:
1. Anecdote
2. Startling statement
3. Quotation
4. Question
5. Humor
6. Action
Persuasive Speech
speech designed to change or reinforce the audience's beliefs or actions
Target Audience
the portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade
Speech to Reinforce
intended to influence listeners by strengthening their convictions and taking advantage of their tendency to seek out and attend messages w/ which they already agree
Speech to Change
is intended to convince the audience to change what they like or dislike, what they hold to be true, or what they consider important or unimportant
Speech to Move to Action
intended to influence listeners either to engage in a new and desirable behavior or to discontinue an undiserable behavior
Questions of fact
a question about the worth and morality of an idea or action
Questions of Value
a question about worth and morality of an idea or action
Questions of Policy
question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
the name used by Aristotle for logical appeals (based on knowledge and reasoning)
Errors in reasoning
Red Herring Fallacy
Fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention form the subject
Ad Hominem Fallacy
Fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing w/ the real issue in dispute
Either-Or Fallacy
Fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
Bandwagon Fallacy
Fallacy that assumes something is popular, it is therefore good, correct or diserable
Slippery Slope Fallacy
Fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
Hasty Generalization Fallacy
Fallacy that draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample size that is not large enough to be considered representative
Post Hoc, ergo propter hoc (Doubtful Cause) Fallacy
Fallacy that concludes one event causes another simply because the proposed effect.
Appeal to Tradition
Fallacy that assumes that something is better or correct simply because it is older, traditional, or always has been done
the name used by Aristotle for emotional appeal
Generating Emotional Appeals:
1, Use emotional language
2. Develop vivid examples
3. Speak with sincerity and conviction
Fear Appeal
based on changing a listener's attitudes or behaviors through the use of anxiety-arousing message; moderate fear appeals work best
Aristotle used for credibility
how an audience regardes a speaker's intelligence, expertise and knowledge of the subject
how an audience regards a speaker's sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience
Initial Credibility
Credibility of the speaker before they start
Derived Credibility
Credibility of the speaker produced by everything they say and do during the speech
Terminal Credibility
Credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech
Enhancing your Credibility:
1. Expertise
2. Trustworthiness
3. charisma