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60 Cards in this Set

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Stage Fright
Anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech infront of an audience.
Adrenaline
a hormone released inti the bloodstream in responce to physical or mental stess
Positive Nervousness
controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation.
Visualization
Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
7 elements of communication
1. Situational
2. Message
3. Feedback
4. Speaker
5. Listener
6. Channel
7. Interference
Situational
Environment:
sit/stand
temp.
lighting
Message
Topic, organization
Channel
Phone, computers, voice, or non verbal
Frame of Reference
Everything that makes you who you are. Ex- experience, knowledge, environment
Ethnocentrism
THe belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
Situational
Environment:
sit/stand
temp.
lighting
Message
Topic, organization
Channel
Phone, computers, voice, or non verbal
Frame of Reference
Everything that makes you who you are. Ex- experience, knowledge, environment
Ethnocentrism
THe belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
Ethics
The branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs.
Plagiarism
Presenting another persons language or ideas as ones own
Global Plagiarism
stealing a speech entirely from a single source
Patchwork Plagiarism
Stealing ideas or languages from 2 or 3 sources
Incremental Plagerism
Failing to give credit
Perception
Using all 5 of your sences to get to know the world around you. Giving meaning to the sensory input. How you know what you know.
Stages of perception
1. Bombarded by sensory info
2. Selecting of what sensory info u attend to
3. Organization
4. Interpretation of that sensory info (give it meaning)
Factors that influence Perciption
Background, experiences, age, maturity level, peer pressure.
Egocentrism
The tendency of people to be concerned above all with their own values, beliefs, and well being.
Rhetorical Question
A question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud
Spare Brain Time
The difference between the rate at which most peopel talk.
Active listening
Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effot to understnad the speakers point of view
Demographic audience analysis
Audience anaylsis that focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, relihgion, ect.
Sterotyping
Creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all memebers of the group are alike
Brainstorming
A method of generating ideas for a speech topic by free assosication of words and ideas
Situational audience analysis
Audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audence.
Fixed alternative questions
Questions that offer a fixed choice between 2 or more alternatives
Scale questions
questions that require responces at a fixed interval along a scale of answers
Open-ended questions
questions that allow respondents to answer however they want
catalogue
a listing of all the books and other resouces owned at a library
abstract
a summary of a magizine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author.
Supporting material
the materials used to support a speakers ideas. the 3 major kinds of supporting materials are examples, stats, and testimony.
statistics
numerical data
testimony
quotes or paraphrases used to support a point
expert testimony
testimony from people who are recognzed experts in their fields
main points
the major points developed in the body of a speech
signpost
a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that fouses attention on key ideas.
5 items needed in introduction
1. attention getter
2. reveal topic
3. relate topic to audience
4. credibility statements
5. preview main points
3 items needed in conclusion
1. signal for closing
2. summary of main points
3. concluding device
alliteration
repetition of the initial consonant sound of close or adjoining words
nonverbal communication
communication based on a persons use of voice and body rather than on the use of words
conversationsl quality
presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
question of fact
a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
question of value
a question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action
question of policy
a question about whether or not a specific course of action should or should not be taken
ethos
the name used by aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibiliy
logos
the name used by aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. the 2 major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
pathos
the name used by aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal
dyad
a group of 2 people
small group
3-12 people
implied leader
a group member choosen because of rank, expertise, age, ect.
emergent leader
a group member who emerges as a leader during groups deliberations
designated leader
a group member who is elected or appointed as leader when the group is formed
procedural needs
when and where group may meet
symosium
individual prepared speech, different aspects of same topic