Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
-collection of nuclei grouped together, largely grey matter
-thalamic adhesion connects -
-*relays sensorimotor info to the cortex*
-may contribute to some speech and language functions
-Medial border = third ventricle
-Lateral border = internal capsule
-consists of many nuclei with different jobs
-clustered above the pituitary gland
-in the point of the optic recesses of the 3rd ventricle
-various autonomic and endocrine functions - interacts with the pituitary gland
-sends info where it needs to go (like the cortex) to integrate functions
basal ganglia
-a set of subcortical nuclei
-one in each hemisphere
-motor function and tone
-constributes to posture
-control or initiation of movement
-connects to thalamus and basal ganglia
-example problem: Parkinson's
caudate nucleus
-large c-shaped nucleus
-long curved tail
-runs along lateral ventricle
-head pushes into the lateral ventricle
-tail curves around back of thalamus, enters inferior horn
-ends at amygdala
-half-moon shaped
-posterior and lateral to the head of the caudate nucleus
-connected to the head by a strip of grey matter lying outside the putamen
-part of the basal ganglia
-lies outside the putamen
-connects putamen to the head of the caudate nucleus
-grey matter
globus pallidus
-more medial than the putamen
-wedge shaped bunch of grey matter
-in between is the internal capsule
semi-permeable membrane
-outside of the neuron
-separates intercellular dextrocellular fluid
-both fluids have electrolytes
Salt conductors
Potassium, sodium, chloride
passive transports
+ and - ions are attracted
control balance
-sodium potassium pump
-active transport, pushes K+ back in, goes against current
-potassium in, sodium out
resting membrane potential (RMP)
-neuron is at balance
- -70 MV is the resting charge
-stimulus will cause a change in RMP
-changes intracellular to +
- -70 MV -> 50 MV
-more + charges inside
action potential
-sodium gates open
- + inside, - out along axon
-K+ let in
-1 millisecond
saltatory conduction
-node -> node
-telodendrite synaptic buttons
-vessicle release neurotransmitters
-out into synaptic cleft stimulation for next neuron
post synaptic
fire or not based on extrocellular fluid
All or Nothing Principle
-Neurons either fire or don't fire
-Must be +50 MV
absolute refractory period
when depolarized can't fire until -70 MV
Order of firing
relative refractory period
partially recovered, and with enough stimulation, will fire again
electrical chemical wave
resting state
- -70 MV - K+ leaks and some NA+ getting in
-in order for change, sodium comes in fast
- +50 MV - threshold reached - depolarizing firing to axon
-very structural
-keep things where they're supposed to be
-confines activities
-form blood/brain barrier
-neurons need oxygen which comes from blood, but not the toxins - these deliver the nutrients
-neurons - shield neural tissue from toxins
-surrounding of the cell bodies
-form the myelin in the CNS
-neural pathways which connect the brain
Schwann Cells
-form myelin in the PNS
-actual cranial and spinal nerves
commissural pathways
-neural pathways in the CNS
-tracts that go from a location in 1 hemisphere to a corresponding location in the other hemisphere
-exp: corpus callosum
associational fibers
-connects in 1 hemisphere
-may be short or long
-can be lobes
-stay in the same hemisphere
arcuate fasciculus
-tract that runs from Wernicke's to Broca's
above the corpus callosum - frontal -> parietal -> occipital with limbic system and each other
projection pathways (fibers)
-run to and from cortex
-connect cortex to other areas
-info in and out of cerebrum
corona radiata
internal capsule
-where fibers get closer together
-into brainstem
brain stem
-connects diencephalon to the spinal cord
-exits through the foramen magnum, then is the spinal cord
-bulbar region
-surrounded by projection fibers
-grey matter
-reticular formation -maintains life function
-coordinates CNS/PNS
-where fibers enter the brainstem
-many cranial nerves exit here
-where the other cranial nerves exit
-2 hemispheres
-cortex of grey matter, pockets of white in grey
-coordinates information
-smooth motor movements
connects two hemispheres of the cerebellum
bundles of connective white matter
superior cerebellar peduncle
leaving cerebellum, opp. motor cortex, offers corrective feedback
dentate nucleus
R & L - synapse happens here, message travels along
middle cerebellar peduncle
collection of fibers, info back into cerebellum from the cerebrum
inferior cerebellar peduncle
info in form nearby structures like the medulla and spinal cord
spinal cord
-protected by vertebrae and meninges
-pia mater adheres to spinal cord surfac
-fibers longitudinal
-projection pathway all the way down, stops at the synapse
-pair of spinal nerves at each vertebrae
-31 spinal nerves, sensorimotor
-spinal ganglion
reflex arc
-a reflexive movement does not go all the way to the brain, goes to the ganglion and outt
-feelin goes all the way through the brain
cranial nerves
-work like spinal nerves
-synapse in the grey matter
-travels out motor component of nerve
-sensory acts the same way, receptor out at skin, cranial nerve V, trigeminal ganglion, synapses, message in basal ganglia, brain, thalamus
-outside cerebrum, brain, spinal
-every cranial nerve has a nucleus
sensorimotor nerves
-mixed nerves
-all spinal are this
-some cranial are too
toward the front
toward the back
away from the backbone
toward the backbone
toward the tail
toward the head
away from the axis or midline
toward axis or midline
toward the body or root of extremity
away from the body or root of extremity
toward the outer surface
toward the inner surface
pertaining to or situated at the center
pertaining to or toward the outer surface
body plane divides right from left
body plane dividing front from back
body plane dividing upper from lower
not right on the midline
tranverse cut through a tube, etc.
toward a structure
away from a structure
organized system of protoplasm, contains nucleus, cytoplasm
5 types of tissues
epithelial tissues
covers and lines different vessels and different cavities of the body
made of contractile material, has an origin (fixed) and insertion (mobile)
striated muscle
long, voluntary muscles
smooth muscle
shorter, involuntary
both long and short - voluntary and involuntary
connective tissue
loose and dense - special's primary goal is structure
desiged to maintain shape
osseous - most dense CT - provides support and structure
non-elastic, binds muscle to bone or muscle to cartilage
binds bone to bone, bone to cartilage, cartilage to cartilage
broad and flattenedmatterial, tendenous, connects muscle to bone and muscle to muscle
tissue fibers in a sheath, separate one muscle from another - layer of cartilage
highly specialized cells, conduct signals to and from brain
vascular tissue
fluid like blood, transports nutrients
encases brain, allows for attachments of muscles and ligaments
8 bones, where brain is housed
frontal bone
houses frontal sinus, surface of forehead, 1 bone
parietal bone
contributes to roof and sides of the skull - 2
temporal bone
contribute to lateral walls and base of skull - 2 bones
leaf shaped, forms the back of the cranium and the base of the skull - 1
ethmoid bone
"5th bone of the cranium" - inferior and posterior to the frontal lobe - surface of cranial floor - framework for nose and eyes - contains lateral labyrinths with nasal conchae
nasal conchae
little spaces covered with muscous membrane - nerve ending for smell - forms nasal septum
joins anteriorly with the ethmoid and posteriorly with the occipital - supports temporal and frontal lobes - pharyngeal structure
only in the skull - only immobile joints
separates occipital from temporal and parietal
-2 hemispheres divided by the longitudinal fissure
-consists of many lobes
precentral gyrus
before central sulcus, primary motor cortex, moves muscles on opposite side of the body
Broca's area
motor sperech production
parietal love
-central sulcus
-integrates symbols/info together
postcentral gyrus
-sensory function, primary sensory cortex
occipital lobe
visual interpretation, recognition
temporal lobe
-in both hemispheres, largely responsible for auditory reception
limbic lobe/system
center of the brain - composed of several structures - around the center of the brain - feeding, fleeing, fighting, arousal
corpus callosum
messages back and forth from left to right
Isle of Reil
visceral (gut reaction) actions - "old brain" - relays some info from one place to another
6 layers of different types of neurons
gray matter
where cell bodies are located
white matters
myelinated axons
links brain stem to cerebrum - visual and auditory reflexes
serves as a bridge to and from the cerebellum - gray matter regulates facial movement and sensation
base of the brain stem, regulates basic life functions, like heart rates, respiration, phonation control
spaghetti looking, grey cortex outside, inside white with grey pockets - coordinates and regulates balance, posture, skilled movements
layers of membrane, cover and protect the CNS by holding structures together - some cushioning from membranes, other from fluids within - framework for blood vessels
dura mater
-2 layers fused
-adheres, 1 side to skull, other to arachnoid
-protects and separates
falx cerebri
-dura mater tissue that comes down from both sides above corpus callosum
falx cerebelli
around the cerebellum between those hemispheres - kept separate from cerebrum
-web-like, lacy
-bridges over sulci
-holds stuff together
-on the gyri
-blood vessels and nerves pass through
-projects through dura mater
arachnoid granulations
-reabsorbs fluid into granulations, puts into blood stream
superior sagittal sinus
major site of arachnoid granulations
pia mater
-adheres one side to the arachnoid, other to brain/spinal tissues
-down in all of the sulci
-extremely vascular
-epithelial tissue
-merges to form choroid plexus
subdural space
-between dura mater and arachnoid
subarachnoid space
-between arachnoid and pia mater
-arteries, nerves, fluid
lateral ventricles
-2, one left, one right - front is anterior horn, back is posterior horn
septum pellucidum
separates 2 lateral ventricles
interventricular foramen
hole, tube, L-R, leads into 3rd ventricle
septume pelucidium
if removed, you could see the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle - space b/w cerebrum and brain tissue - horns separated by this membrane
cerebrospinal fluid
produced in the meninges - lines the spaces - epithelial tissue
choroid plexus
-tufts of tissue
-in every ventricle
-along floor of lateral ventricle
-along the ceiling of the 3rd ventricle
-along the wall of the 4th ventricle
glial cells
supportive cells around the neurons
axon hillock
junction between cell body and process of axon
info to cell body
info away from cell body
node of Ranvier
junction between the myelin - leaves part of the axon exposed to fluid outside the neuron
synaptic cleft
when adequate neural stimulation, neuron fires - when it reaches the synaptic button, neurotransmitters are released into this