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29 Cards in this Set

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Describe Communication as Information Transfer
Comm. is defined as “the exchange of information and the transmission of meaning” & “information engineering”

SMCR--Sender, Message, Channel, Reciever.

-process contains ambiguity because of a lack of non-verbal signals)
Describe Communication as a Transactional Process
---This approach highlights the importance of feedback. Especially non-verbal feedback. “you cannot not communicate”
---Also Reflects leadership, because people will follow what leaders say and DO.
Describe Communication as Strategic Control
“Strategic-control approach to communication states that people may have reasons for their behavior but cannot be expected to communicate in an objective or a rational way.”
--ALso you must be rehtorically sensitive, clear and assertive but understanding and fair.
Decribe Communication as Balancing creativity & Constraint...Self, Other, Context. (WHAT DO CONSTRAINTS DO)
Org comm. Is the “moment to moment working our of the tension or balance or creativity and constraint.
--
Describe Organizations as Dialogues and what are the three Levels of Dialogue.
1. Equitable Transaction: All participants have the right to voice their opinion and viewpoint.
2. Empathic Conversation: (put yourself in someone else’s shoes)
3. Real Meeting: Different peoples can effectively sit down and communicate
Describe Historical and Metaphorical concepts of human behavior
HISTORICAL: a product of the time that reflects the concerns and interests of the culture that produced it.

METAPHORICAL: it uses language to suggest enlightening comparisons between organizational communication and other processes.
Explain what the 3 P's of historical writing are.
1. Partial---There can never be a full account of history because history is partial.

-Partisan---writing is a
biased supporter of something

-problematic narratives are
Theoretical accounts ask more questions than they can answer.q
Describe the classical approach to management,
-machine metaphor
-response to particularism
-division of labor
-hierarchy
-scientific management
-bureaucracy
1. Organization is an efficent machine. The machine runs like clockwork
2. Authoritan and value based hierarchial organization. Labor is broken up on a hierarchial scale.
3. Bureaucracy is the dominant form of organizing.
--stability is best achieved by adherance to rules/regulations.
Describe the Human Relations/Human Resources approach to management
-Sum of human relationships
-response to classical
-increased satisfaction for productivity
-leads to improved productivity and efficiency.
-ROmantic ideals
-Ideal form of society is domocratic and values open and honest relationships.
-Division of labor is supported by open communication.
-Stability is achieved through relational and personal happiness.
-Dominant form of organizing, teams or groups within bureaucracies.
Explain the Hawthorne Studies
The Hawthorne Effect is---that increased attention raises productivity. (p.73 Hawthornes study)
Describe Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
-Self actualization
--self-esteem
---Love
----Safety
-----Physiological
Describe the Systems Perspective to managment
The importance between a collection of parts versus a collection of parts that work together to create a functional whole. the functional whole is called a system. (the relationships of the people/things within the group are what define the system)
What are the components to the Systems Approach
Enviornment---enviornmental scanning
Interdependence
Goals
Feedback(positive/negative)
Openness---encourage
people to be mindful
of the importance of the overall health of their industry.

Contingency
Describe Feedback and what positive and negative feedback is.
Positive and negative feedback needs to be received to regulate the flow and interpretation of messages (A Thermostat)

--Positive Feedback> Info on how to improve the organization as a whole
--Negative Feedback> Cybernetics
Describe the: New Science of Leadership...and the 6 points of New Science Leadership.
Wheatley

--Argues the following 6 points:
1. There are no things in themselves. Everything interacts
2. information, not matter is the creative energy of the universe.
3. All living things are naturally engaged in self-renewal, organizations make creative use of their enviornments.
4. machinelike control in organizations is counterproductive.
5. What we call disorder is part of the natural process of order making
6. The desire to make meaning keeps humans in a constant tendency toward self-organization.
Describe, Learning Organization...and the 5 featrues of a Learning Organization
Senge

Believes in holism, Learning organizations show 5 features
1. Systems Thinking: for any one member to succeed all members must succeed
2. Personal Mastery. All memers share a personal commitment to learning
3. Felxible Mental models. patterns of belief that shape and limit an individuals interpretation and actions
4. A shared Vision... tight control is replaced by concertive control. all members share the same vision
5. Team Learning... team members communicate in ways that lead the team toward intelligent decisions.
Describe Sense-Making Model and the three parts to it.
Weick
---you must make sense of uncertainities in enviornments through interaction. "equivocality reduction"

Parts:
1. enactment
2. selection
3. retention
--enact the enviornment then select the best explanation of the enviorments meaning then successful interpretations are saved for later use.
What is Retrospective sense making?
Underlying factor in Weicks model:

people act first and then interpret their actions to justisfy their actions
What is Partial Inclusion?
Weick

--employees are only partially included in the workplace.(they have other obligations)
What is Loose coupling?
Weick

--The communication connections among people in organizations vary intensity and are often loose or weak. (parts of the company that are not tightly connected to one another such as a university are more stable)
Define Assimilation
Is the process where people become accustomed to the values, rules, and normality’s through time and thus become a member of that community.
What are the three steps to Assimilation?
1. Anticipatory socialization

2. organizational assimilation

3.organizational turning points (points that can make or break the work experince)
What is Anticipatory Socialization?
People learn about the work through dialogue with other workers. 2 types Vocational and Organizational.

1. vocational---learning job titles
2. Organizational--learning about the jobs
What is Organizational Assimilation?
Involves surprise and sense making. When new comers simply learn the ropes of their company.
What at the 3 levels of Job satisfaction?
1. safe working conditions
2. supportive interpersonal enviornment
3. opportunities for personal growth A career path or promotions.
Describe employee Productivity...
Productivity is the most important indicator of cooperatoin. the ability to turn input into output quickly. Manager employee interaction can lead to better productivity.
Stress and six sources of stress
1. Culture shock
2. The challenge of diversity
3. Bias, discrimination, prejudice
4. language
5. customs and taboos
6. physical stress
Three Dimensions of Jobs that create stress
1. Workload
2. Role uncertainity
3. Job Design...the quality of the work experience.
Ways to improve the quality of life for employees
1. Combine tasks
2. Form Natural work groups
3. Establish customer contact
4. Delegate decision making
5. open up feedback channels.