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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Body constantly exposed to sensory information called...
Stimuli
Conscious awareness of stimuli...
sensation
Stimuli detected by...
receptors
Two classes of receptors:
General senses
Special senses
General senses
temperature, pain, touch, stretch and pressure
Special senses
gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium and audition
Three criteria used to describe receptors:
stimulus origin
receptor distribution
modality (type) of stimulus
General sense receptors distributed throughout____ and ____.
skin, organs
Special sense receptors housed in complex organs in...
head
Three types of receptors based on origin:
exteroceptors
interoceptors
proprioceptors
exteroceptors
found in skin or mucous membranes
 nasal and oral cavities, vagina and anal canal
interoceptors
found in walls of viscera
 detect stretching, oxygen deprivation, temperature and pressure
proprioceptors
found in muscles, tendons and joints
 detect body and limb movement, muscle contraction and stretching
Three types of receptors based on distribution:
Somatic
Visceral
Special
Somatic receptors
– found within body wall
 include receptors for chemicals, temperature, pain, touch, proprioception and pressure
Visceral receptors
found within walls of viscera
 respond to chemicals, temperature and pressure
Special receptors
located only in head
 gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium and hearing
Several classes of receptors based on stimulating agent:
Chemo receptors
Thermo receptors
Photo receptors
Mechano receptors
Baro receptors
Nociceptors
Chemo receptors
detect specific molecules dissolved in fluid
Thermo receptors
detect changes in temperature
Photo receptors
detect changes in light intensity, color and movement of light
Mechano receptors
detect physical deformation due to touch, pressure, vibration and stretch
Baro receptors
detect pressure changes within body structures
Nociceptors
detect tissue damage and pain
Photoreceptors detect:
light
color
movement
Accessory structures of eye prevent---__________
&____________
Foreign objects from entering and lubricate, clean eye.
Accessory Structures of the Eye
Conjunctiva
eyebrows
eyelashes
eyelids
Lacrimal Aparatus
Conjunctiva
stratified squamous epithelium lines anterior surface of eye (but not the cornea) and inner surface of eyelid
 contains goblet cells to lubricate and moisten eye
eyebrows
prevent sweat from entering eye
eyelashes
prevent entry of foreign objects
eyelids
movable protective covering
Lacrimal Gland
produces fluid to lubricate eye
--tears
Tears help prevent bacterial infections
 contain antibiotic-like enzyme called
Lysozyme
Lacrimal Apparatus consists of:
Lacrimal gland
Lacrimal puncta
Lacrimal caniculi
Nasolacrimal duct
Three principal layers form the wall of the eye:
Fibrous Tunic
Vascular Tunic
Iris
Fibrous Tunic
Composed of two regions:
Cornea and Sclera
Cornea
transparent and avascular
 Allows light to pass into eye
Sclera
tough, majority of fibrous tunic
 allows for attachment of extrinsic eye muscles
White of the eye
Vascular Tunic
 3 regions (from posterior to anterior):
Choroid
Ciliary body
Iris
Choroid
Largest area
 Highly vascular, supplies oxygen and nutrients to Retina.
Ciliary body
Composed of ciliary muscles and ciliary processes
 suspensory ligaments extend from processes
 Attach to lens.
 Contraction/relaxation of ciliary muscles changes shape of lens
Iris
outermost part of anterior eye
 In center of iris is pupil .
 Opening that allows light into eye
 diameter of pupil regulated by two sets of muscles in iris
Retina
Internal layer of eye wall
Two layers of the retina:
Pigmented layer – attached to choroid
 cells absorb light energy
 provide photoreceptors with vitamin A
Neural layer – houses Photoreceptors and associated neurons
Organization of the Neural Layer of Retina
Photoreceptor layer
Bipolar layer
Ganglion cells
Photoreceptor layer comprised of
Rods and cones
Rods & cones
Rods--Not color sensitive
Cones--color sensitive
Axons leave retina and form...
CNII
Optic nerve
Optic disc is the area where...
Ganglion cell axons exit retina to form optic nerve
 Retinal arteries and veins enter and exit the retina
Optic disc lacks & creates...
Photoreceptors
Blind spot
Fovea Centralis...
Area of retina with the highest proportion of rods and almost no cones .
 Sharpest area of vision
Lens
 Transparent, deformable structure that is suspended behind pupil by suspensory ligaments
Ciliary muscles
change the shape of the lens to help focus images on the retina
Cavities of the Eye
Anterior cavity
Posterior cavity
Anterior cavity of the eye
between lens and cornea.
 Contains aqueous humor
 Nourishes cornea and lens
Posterior cavity of the eye
posterior to lens
 Contains vitreous humor
 Gelatinous mass that Helps to hold retina in place
Ear contains organs of...
equilibrium and hearing
Ear is divided into three distinct anatomic regions:
External
Middle
Inner
External Ear or Auricle
collects
sound waves
External Ear leads to bony tube called
external acoustic canal
External Ear ends at the
Tympanic membrane
where is cerumen produced?
glands of the extenal ear
function of cerumen?
Cleaning, lubrication, protection
Middle Ear location
Air-filled cavity behind tympanic membrane
Three auditory ossicles...
malleus
incus
stapes
middle ear contents and function:
opening to eustachian tube .
 connects to nasopharynx.
 allows for pressure equalization.
optic chiasma
Optic nerves cross. Some axons go right and some go left.
Stapes connects to:
Oval window of inner ear
Malleus connects to:
tympanic membrane
eustachian tube is also called
auditory tube
eustachian tube connects to and function
nasopharynx
allows for pressure
Location of inner ear:
Petrous portion of the Temporal Bone
Inner ear also called:
Bony Labyrinth
Within bony labyrinth are fluid-filled tubes and spaces called...
membranous labyrinth
Bony labyrinth filled with____
Function
Perylymph
supports and protects membranous labyrinth
Membranous labyrinth contains fluid called
Endolymph
3 regions of the Bony Labyrinth...
Vestibule
Semicircular Canals
Cochlea
Vestibule of the bony labyrinth contains...
Utricle (superior) and saccule (inferior)
Semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth contain...
semicircular ducts
Equilibrium part of the inner ear is...
Semicircular canals
At the base of each semicircular duct is...
Ampula
Cochlea of bony labyrinth contains...
Cochlear duct
Contains organ of hearing...
Cochlea
Bony labyrinth surrounding cochlear duct split into two chambers:
Scala vestubli
Scala Tympani
Spiral organ (organ of corti ) located...
within cochlear duct
Spiral organ (organ of corti )
function
detects movement of endolymph
o sits on basilar membrane