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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
palpebrae
eyelids
medial and lateral commisures
medial and lateral junctions of eyes - corners of the eye
lacrimal caruncle
fleshy elevation at medial commisure - secretes oily white solution(sleep)
conjunctiva
mucus membrane: underneath eyelids and covering eyeball, lubricates the eye
cilliary glands
sweat glands between eyelashes - lubricates eyeball
lacrimal apparatus
lacrimal gland - produces lacrimal fuild(tears) - containing salt and lysosomes

tears flow from lacrimal gland -> lacrimal punctum -> lacrimal canaliculi -> nasolacrimal duct
eye muscles
lateral rectus - moves eye laterally - abducens nerve
medial rectus - moves eye medially - oculomotor nerve
superior rectus - elevates eye and turns it medially - oculomotor nerve
inferior rectus - depresses eye and turns it medially - oculomotor nerve
inferior oblique - elevates eye and turns it laterally - oculomotor nerve
superior oblique - depresses eye and turns it laterally - trochlear nerve
Eye wall
three layers:
-fibrous layer - outer layer

-vascular layer - uvea

-sensory layer - retina
fibrous layer
-sclera - opaque region occupying most of the fibrous layer

-cornea - anterior transparent region modified to let in light
vascular layer
-choroid - highly vascularized posterior region of uvea, contains melanin which prevents scattering of light

-ciliary body - ciliary muscle - controls lens shape, extensions hold lens in shape, - ciliary processes - contain capillaries from which aqueous humor is filtered

-iris - colored part of the eye, circularly and radially arranged muscles regulate diameter of pupil
parasympathetic
pupil gets smaller - sphincter pupillae muscle
sympathetic
pupil gets larger - dilator pupillae muscle
sensory layer
-pigmented layer(outer layer)

-neural layer(transparent inner layer) - contains photoreceptors: rods for dim light vision, and cones for high acuity color vision
fovea centralis: site of neural layer where cones highly concentrated(toward center)
optic disc: blind spot - lacks photoreceptors
retina cells
ganglion cells(innermost) -> bipolar cells -> photoreceptors(rods and cones) -> pigmented layer of retina(outermost)
Eye segments
anterior segment - between cornea and lens - contains aqueous humor - watery fluid constantly reformed

posterior segment - everything posterior to lens - contains vitreous humor - jelly-like fluid from birth
Outer ear
-pinna - external ear composed of elastic cartilage

-external auditory canal lined with skin containing ceruminous glands
Middle ear
-ossicles - malleus, incus, stapes connected by synovial joints

-pharyngotympanic tube

-tympanic membrane - separates outer ear from middle ear
inner ear aka labyrinth
-bony labyrinth: contains perilymph, semicircular ducts, vestibule, cochlea

-membranous labyrinth: suspended in perilymph and contain endolymph, contains saccule, utricle, semicircular cnals, cochlea duct

a bony wall separates the middle ear from the inner ear, it contains 2 opening an oval and a round window
Equilibrium
the semicircular canals are oriented so 1 is in each plane; filled with endolymph

each canal ends in ampulla which contain cristae ampulares - equilibrium receptors
Olfaction
sense of smell

organ of smell is olfactory epithelium located in roof of nasal cavity
olfactory epithelium
3 types of cells:
-olfactory receptor cells
-supporting cells
-basal cells
olfactory receptor cells
bipolar neurons w/ olfactory cilia called olfactory hairs

-bundles of these axons form the olfactory nerve(cranial nerve I)
supporting cells
surround and cushion olfactory receptor cells
basal cells
lie at base of epithelium

divide and replace olfactory receptor cells - replaced every 30-60 days
gustation
receptor organs are taste buds
-found on tongue inside papillae
-specialized epithelial cells that are replaced every 7 days

fungiform papillae on top of tongue

foliate papillae on side walls of tongue
Taste Bud structure
flask shpaed - 50-100 epithelial cells:
-basal cells - dynamic stem cells
-gustatory cells - taste cells: microvilli(gustatory hairs) project through taste pore to epithelium surface
Taste Sensations
five
-sweet
-sour
-salt
-bitter
-umami
Physiology of taste
chemical
-must be dissolved in saliva
-must contact gustatory hairs
gustatory pathway
cranial nerves VII and IX -> medulla -> thalamus -> insula and hypothalamus
Taste influence
taste is 80% smell
temperature and texture can also enhance or detract from taste