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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Etiology of Cystic Nasal Conchae
Etiology of Cleft Palate (Palatoschisis)
Etiology of Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome
Etiology of Hemorrhage
1. Coagulopathies
2. Septicemias
Etiology of Pulmonary Calcification
1. Hypercalcemic states
2. Uremia (dogs)
3. Pulmonary necrosis
Etiology of Congenital Atelectasis
Obstruction of airways
Etiology of Acquired Atelectasis
1. Compressive:
a. Physical effects
2. Obstructive:
a. Airway blockage
b. Mucosal edema
c. Exudates
d. Aspirated foreign body
e. Parasites
f. Neoplasms
3. Extended recumbancy
Etiology of Pulmonary Congestion
Left sided heart failure
Etiology of Hemodynamic Edema
1. Congestive heart failure
2. Iatrogenic fluid overload
3. Hypoalbuminemia
4. Impaired lymph drainage
Etiology of Permeability Edema
1. Inflammatory mediators
2. Direct damage:
a. Pneumotropic viruses
b. Toxicants
c. Bacterial toxins
Etiology of Neurogenic Edema
Increased intracranial pressure
Etiology of Sterile Thromboemboli
1. Jugular vein thrombus
2. Long-term IV catheterization
Etiology of Septic Thromboemboli
1. Bacterial endocarditis
2. Jugular thrombophlebitis
3. Hepatic abscesses
4. Septic arthritis and omphalitis
Etiology of Serous Rhinitis
1. Mild irritants
2. Allergic reaction
3. Cold air
4. Early viral infection
Etiology of Purulent Rhinitis
1. Bacterial infection
2. Severe injury
3. Mucosal necrosis
Etiology of Granulomatous Rhinitis
1. Systemic mycosis
2. Tuberculosis
3. Foreign bodies
Etiology of Pharyngitis/Laryngitis/Tracheitis
1. Intraluminal foreign bodies
2. Tumors
3. Parasitism
a. Spirocerca lupi
4. Bacteria:
a. Fusibacterium spp.
b. Actinobacillus spp.
Etiology of Lymphadenopathies
1. Hyperplasia
2. Neoplasia
3. Lymphadenitis
4. Cysts
5. Polyps
6. Abscesses
a. Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Etiology of Bronchopneumonia
1. Bacteria
2. Mycoplasmas
3. Bronchoaspiration
Etiology of Embolic Pneumonia
1. Virulent circulating bacteria
2. Bacterial/fibrin thrombi
Etiology of Interstitial Pneumonia
1. Injury to alveoli:
a. Aerogenous:
i. Toxic gases
ii. Smoke
iii. Toxic metabolites
iv. Infection with viruses
2. Injury to vascular endothelium:
a. Septicemia
b. DIC
c. Microembolism
d. Larval migrans
e. Toxins from GIT
f. Toxic metabolites from lungs
g. Endotheliotropic viruses
Etiology of Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia
1. Viral infections with
2. Concurrent bacterial infection
3. Respiratory syncytial virus
4. Canine distemper
5. Influenza in:
a. Pigs
b. Horses
Etiology of Granulomatous Pneumonia
1. Systemic fungal diseases:
a. Cryptococcosis
b. Coccidioidomycosis
c. Histoplasmosis
d. Blastomycosis
2. Bacterial diseases:
a. Mycobacterium bovis
b. Rhodococcus equi
3. Viral diseases:
a. Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Etiology of Dorsal-Diaphragmatic Pneumonia
Etiology of Lobar Pneumonia
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Etiology of Pharyngeal Perforation
1. Trauma
2. Foreign bodies
Etiology of Suppurative Pleuritis
(Pyothorax, Thoracic empyema)
1. Haemophilus parasuis
2. Streptococcus suis type II
3. Pasteurella multocida
4. Streptococcus equi
5. Streptococcus zooepidemicus
6. Escherichia coli
7. Mycoplasma spp.
8. Haemophilus spp.
Etiology of Pyogranulomatous Pleuritis
1. Nocardia spp.
2. Actinomyces spp.
3. Bacteroides spp.
Etiology of Rhinitis/Sinusitis in the dog
1. Acute rhinitis:
a. Canine distemper virus
b. Canine adenovirus 1 and 2
c. Canine parainfluenza virus
d. Reovirus
e. Canine herpesvirus
2. Secondary bacterial rhinitis:
a. Bordetella bronchiseptica
b. Escherichia coli
c. Pasteurella multocida
3. Fungal causes:
a. Mycelial forms:
i. Aspergillus spp.
ii. Penicillium spp.
b. Yeast forms:
i. Cryptococcus neoformans
ii. Rhinosporidium seeberi
Etiology of Tracheal Agenesis and Tracheal Hypoplasia in the dog
Etiology of Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel cough) in the dog
1. Bordetella bronchiseptica
2. Canine adenovirus 2
3. Canine parainfluenza virus
4. Environment:
a. Poor ventilation
b. Stress
Etiology of Sterile Thromboemboli
in the dog
1. Dirofilaria immiitis
2. Hyperadrenocorticism
3. Hyperthyroidism
4. Glomerulopathies
5. Hypercoagulable states
Etiology of Canine Adenovirus
Canine Adenovirus Type 2
Etiology of Fading puppy syndrome
Canine Herpes Virus
Etiology of Canine Distemper
1. Morbillivirus
2. Secondary infections:
a. Bordetella bronchiseptica
b. Mycoplasmas
Etiology of Bacterial Pneumonias in the dog
1. Primary viral injury
2. Secondary bacterial:
a. Pasteurella multocida
b. Streptococcus spp.
c. Escherichia coli
d. Klebsiella pneumoniae
e. Bordetella bronchiseptica
f. Tuberculosis
Etiology of Opportunistic Mycotic Pneumonias in the dog
Aspergillus fumigatus
Etiology of Systemic Mycotic Pneumonia in the dog
1. Blastomyces dermatitidis
2. Histoplasma capsulatum
3. Coccidioides immitis
4. Cryptococcus neoformans
Etiology of Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasma gondii
Etiology of Pleural Calcification (Frosting) in the dog
Chronic uremia
Etiology of Feline viral rhinotracheitis
Feline Herpes Virus (FHV 1)
Etiology of Feline Chlamydiosis
Chamydia psittaci (felis)
Etiology of Mild Feline Rhinitis
Mycoplasma felis
Etiology of Mycotic Rhinitis in the cat
Cryptococcus neoformans
Etiology of Laryngeal Edema in the cat
Systemic anaphylaxis
Etiology of Bacterial Pneumonias in the cat
1. Pasteurella multocida
2. Mycoplasmas
3. Mycobacterium bovis
4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
5. Mycobacterium avium
Etiology of Mycotic Pneumonias in the cat
Cryptococcus neoformans
Etiology of Parasitic Pneumonicas in the cat
1. Aehurostrongylus abstrusus
2. Toxoplasma gondii
3. Paragonimus kellicotti
4. Dirofilaria immitis
Etiology of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
Bovine herpesvirus-1
Etiology of Ovine/caprine Rhinitis/sinusitis
Oestrus ovis
Etiology of Enzootic Ethmoidal Tumors in ruminants
Etiology of Laryngeal Edema
Acute interstitial pneumonia
Etiology of Necrotic Laryngitis (Calf diphtheria, laryngeal necrobacillosis)
1. Fusobacterium necrophorum
2. Nutritional deficiencies
3. Unsanitary conditions
4. Concurrent infection
Etiology of Enzootic Pneumonia (Calf pneumonia, viral pneumonia)
1. Viral:
a. PI-3 virus
c. Adenoviruses
d. BHV-1
e. Reoviruses
f. Rhinoviruses
2. Mycoplasmas
3. Bacterial:
a. Pasteurella multocida
b. Arcanobacterium pyogenes
c. Hemophilus somnus
d. Escherichia coli
Etiology of Pneumonic Pasteurellosis (Shipping fever) in a ruminant
1. Primary viral:
a. IBR
b. PI3
2. Secondary bacterial:
a. Mannheimia hemolytica
Etiology of Respiratory Hemophilosis in a ruminant
Haemophilus somnus
Etiology of Tuberculosis in a ruminant
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Etiology of Viral Pneumonia in a ruminant
Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Etiology of Acute Bovine Pulmonary Edema and Emphysema (ABPE) (Fog fever)
1. L-tryptophan
2. 4-ipomcanol
3. Purple mint
4. Rapeseed and kale
Etiology of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis (Hypersensitivity pneumonitis) in a ruminant
1. Thermophilic actinomycetes
2. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula
Etiology of Verminous pneumonia (Verminous bronchitis) in cattle and sheep
1. Dictyocaulus viviparous
a. Cattle
2. Dictyocaulus filaria
a. Sheep
Etiology of Maedi (Maedi-Visna) in a ruminant
Non-oncogenic retrovirus
Etiology of Inclusion Body Rhinitis in a pig
Porcine cytomegalovirus
Etiology of Atrophic Rhinitis in a pig
1. B. bronchiseptica
2. P. multocida
Etiology of Hypoplastic Epiglottis in a pig
Etiology of Laryngeal Edema in a pig
Edema disease
Etiology of Swine Influenza
1. Type A influenza virus
2. Secondary bacterial or mycoplasmal infection
Etiology of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
PRRS virus
Etiology of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in a pig
Porcine circovirus
a. Alone or
b. In combo with porcine parvovirus
Etiology of Porcine Enzootic Pneumonia
Mycoplasma hyopnumoniae
Etiology of Porcine Pasteurellosis
Pasteurella multocida
Etiology of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae (APP) in a pig
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Etiology of Verminous pneumonia in a pig
1. Metastrongylus apri
2. Ascaris suum
Etiology of Haemophilus pneumonia in a pig
Haemophilus parasuis/suis
Etiology of Streptococcal pneumonia in a pig
Streptococcus suis Type II
Etiology of Epistaxis in a horse
1. Trauma
2. Guttural pouch mycosis
3. Tumors
Etiology of Equine Rhinitis/Sinusitis
1. Viral:
a. Viral rhinopneumonitis
b. Influenza
c. Rhinovirus
d. Adenovirus
e. Parainfluenza virus
2. Bacterial:
a. Streptococcus equi
i. Strangles
b. Pseudomonas mallei
i. Glanders
Etiology of Hypoplastic Epiglottis in a horse
Etiology of Laryngeal Edema in a horse
Purpura hemorrhagica
Etiology of Pharyngeal Lymphoid Hyperplasia in a horse
1. Chronic bacterial infection
2. Environmental factors
3. Excessive antigenic stimulation
4. Lymphoid hyperplasia
Etiology of Guttural Pouch Mycosis
1. Aspergillus fumigatus
2. Aspergillus spp.
Etiology of Guttural Pouch Empyema
Streptococcus equi
Etiology of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Exercise - dip shit
Etiology of Equine Influenza
Viral infection
Etiology of Equine Viral Rhinopneumonitis
Equine herpesvirus