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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two general forms of cardiomyopathy?

What are the gross lesions see with congestive cardiomyopathy?
dialated ventricular chambers
thinned walls and septum
atrial thrombosis(dogs>cats)
Congestive cariomyopathy in cats is rare, but may be associated with what?
taurine deficiency
hat are the signs for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats?
congestive heart failure
rear limb weakness
weak or absent pulse
cold limbs
Feline HCM has been associated with what other feline condition?
Which are more laminated, arterial or venous thrombi?
What are the common bacterial etiologies for acute pericarditis?
Strept spp
E. coli
Endocarditis can be associated with hematogenous bacterial disease involving what common bacteria?
Strept spp
E. coli
What are the gross lesions for endocarditis?
Granular and rough vegetations on valve leaflets
Where do the lesions of endocarditis form in small and large animals commonly?
small= mitral valve

large= tricuspid valve
What is myocarditis usually seconday to?
Septicemia, an extension of endocarditis or epicarditis
What are the gross lesions associated with myocarditis?
Red to dark red areas in the myocardium. Hemorrhage and necrosis
What is Caval Symdrome?
Adult heartworms block the flow of returning blood from the caudal vena cava
What are the gross lesions seen with caval syndrome?`
severe liver congestion

portal system congestion
What is the pathogenesis for caval syndrome?
What are the gross lesions for white muscle disease?
pale white streaks in myocardium
What is the pathogenesis for white muscle disease?
Vit E deficiency
excessive free radicals
membrane lipid peroxidation
What is Mulberry heart disease?
Vit E deficiency in young pigs
What are the most common sites to find hemangiosarcoma lesions?
skin and spleen
What might you find on a cytology from a dog with hemangiosarcoma?
What are the gross lesions seen with malignant hemangiosarcoma?
pale mucous membranes
enlarged abdomen
red to red black masses in tissues
What are the three causes for yellow liver?
hepatic lipidosis

steroid hepatopathy

hepatic amyloidosis
What metabolic diseases are associated with glycogen accumulation?
Diabetes Mellitus

steroid induced hepatopathy
What is the cause of primary amyloidosis?
accumulation of Ig light chains
What is the pathogenesis for secondary amyloidosis?
prolonged inflammation
chronic inflammation or tissue destruction
What produces the amyloid that is responsible for secondary amyloidosis?
Know the patterns of necrosis on pages 309-312.
That way I can answer the first 8 questions on THIS TEST!!!
Waht are the gross lesions for Infectious Canine Hepatitis?
petechia and ecchymoses
fibrin strand on liver surface
enlargenent and reddening of the tonsils and lymph nodes
What are the routes of entry for bacteria causing liver abcesses?
portal vein
hepatic artery
umbilical artery
biliary system
direct extension
Liver abcesses in cattle are usually a sequela to what condition?
metabolic rumenitis
When hepatic abcesses rupture, where does the funk go and what usually happens as a consequence?
It enters the hepatic vein or caudal vena cava and fatal septic embolism of the lungs usually occurs
What is the etiology for Bacillary hemoblobinuria?
Clostridium hemolyticum
What is the pathogenesis of bacillary hemoglobinuria?
hepatocellular necrosis

intravascular hemolysis
Bacillary hemoglobinuria will cause what kind of effusion in body cavities?
What is the etiology for Tyzzer's disease?
Clostridium piliformis
What are the gross lesions associated with Tyzzer's disease?
hepatic enlargement

randomly distributed, pale foci of hepatocellular necrosis
What animals are most affected by hepatosis dietetica?
young rapidly growing swine
What is the cause of hepatosis dietetica?
Vit E Selenium deficiency
What are the gross lesions seen with hepatosis dietetica?
hemorrhagic centrilobular necrosis

massive hepatic necrosis
What are the gross lesions seen with acute pancreatitis?
proteolytic degradation of the pancreas

vascular damage and hemorrhage

necrosis of peripancreatic fat

acute inflammation with edema
What are some effects that the enzymes released during acute pancreatitis have systemically?
wide spread hemorrhage
hepatic necrosis
What is Pancreatic Nodular Hyperplasia associated with in cats and dogs?
it is seen in older animals an is considered an age change of little significance
What is the origin of Palatoschisis?
Genetic or toxin
Define Palatoschisis.
Failure of fusion of the lateral palatine processes
Where are the vesicles of early stage vesicular stomatitis located?
oral mucosa and coronary bands
Where do cats get ulcerative eosinophilic granulomas?
upper lip
commissure of the lips
regional lymph nodes
Where do dogs get ulcerative eosinophilic granulomas?
ventral and lateral surfaces of the tongue

palatine mucosa
What is the response to injury for ulcerative eosinophilic granuloma?
foci of collagenolysis

granulamatous inflammation

secondary supporative inflammation
What is the term used to describe protrusion of the mandible?
what term is used to describe a short mandible?
what is the etiology for wooden tongue?
actinobacillus lignieresii
This is a secondary systemic disease that results in an infection of the intact mucous membranes of the tongue and esophagus producing a pseudomembrane that is easily removed
What is the most common esophageal parasite?
Spirocerca lupi
What are the three most common causes for esophageal erosions and ulcers?
reflux of stomaach acids

improper use of stomach tubes

infectios diseases
What are the locations where choke is most likely to occur?
dorsal to the larynx
thoracic inlet
base of the heart
diaphragmatic hiatus
any developmental anomaly
What is primary bloat caused by?
dietary contents that make a stable foam that mixes with rumen contents to effectively block the cardia
What is seconday bloat associated with?
failure to eructate
What can cause a failure to eructate in a ruminant?
obstruction of the esophagus
vagus indigestion
esophageal innervation disorders
esophageal papilloma
foreign bodies
What is the cause of death in metabolic rumenitis?
dehydration secondary to the increased osmotic effect of the rumen


circulatory collapse
What are the two main bacterial culprits in bacterial rumenitis?
Actinomyces pyogenes

Fusobacterium necrophorum
What are the pre-disposing factors for GDV syndrome?
large breed deep chested dogs

source of distending gas

obstruction or cardia or pylorus
The souce of gas in GDV is not well understood, but what bacteria may be the cause?
clostridium perfringes
What is the pathogenesis of GDV?
repeated episodes of dilation

stretching and relaxation of gastro hepatic ligament
What microorganisms are involved in granulamatous gastritis?
Histoplasma capsulatum

M. tuberculosis
What is responsible for eosinophilic gastritis?
migration of larval Toxocara canis
What is the pathogenesis for porcine gastric ulcers?
high- carbo diet in combination with fermentative commensal bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bacillus
What part of the gastric mucosa is affected with porcine gastric ulcers?
limited to the stratified squamous epithelial esophageal portion of the gastric mucosa that surrounds the cardia
What can the death associated with porcine gastric ulcers result from?
exsanguination into the gastric lumen
What bovine parasite resembles a barber pole?
Hemonchus contortus
What are the gross lesions associated with a hemonchus contortus infection in cattle?
hemorrhagic abomasitis
What compound makes up most enteroliths?
ammonium magnesium phosphate
Where in the GIT do enteroliths usually occur?
pelvic flexure or transverse colon
In muscular hypertophy of the illium, what layer of the illium is hypertrophied?
tunica muscularis
What parasite is responsible for hemomelasma ilei?
strongylus edentatus
What is the most commonly reported ause of PLE in dogs?
What are the gross lesions in an animal with Enterotoxic colibaccilosis?
profuse yellow to white watery pasty feces
What are the gross lesions for Septicemis colibaccilosis?
fibrinous arthritis
fibrinous opthalmitis
white spotted kidney
Does Salmonella have an endo toxin or an exotoxin?
What is the pathogenesis for salmonellosis?
tonsils and peyer's patches
colonize in the intestine and are invasive

enter epithelial and macrophages of the mucosa

spread to liver
What are the gross lesions for peracute salmonella septicemia?
fibrinoid necrosis of blood vessels

widespread petechiation

cyanosis of extremeties and vetrum of white pigs
What is the reason for death in peracute salmonella septicemia?
What causes pulpy kidney disease?
Clostridium perfringens type D