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281 Cards in this Set

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Steps of the IEP process
1. pre-referral; 2. referral; 3. evaluation; 4. elligibility; 5. development;
6. implementation; 7. annual review
Required members of the IEP team
1. student (if appropriate); 2. general ed teacher (if appropriate); 3. special ed teacher; 4. school district representative; 5. someone who can interpret evaluation results; 6. parent; 7. anyone parent wishes to bring (notify team in advance)
13 disability categories recognized by IDEA;
bonus: where is ADHD?
1. Orthopedic Disabilities; 2. Mental Retardation; 3. Autism; 4. Deafness; 5. Deaf-blindness; 6. Hearing Impairment; 7. Emotional and Behavioral Disturbance; 8. Specific Learning Disabilities; 9. Traumatic Brain Injury; 10. Vision Disabilities; 11. Speech-Language Impairment; 12. Multiple Disabilities; 13. Other Health Impairments (includes ADHD)
8 fundamental provisions of IDEA
1. FAPE; 2. LRE; 3. IEP; 4. parent's right to notification; 5. individualized instruction for all; 6. necessary related services; 7. federal assistance with excess costs; 8. individulized assessments
IDEA's procedural safeguards give parents what rights?
1. NTW: notice of meetings, in a timely manner, in writing; 2. give permission for evaluations or obtain independent evaluations; 3. access child's school records; 4. understand child's placement outside of regular school; 5. resolve complaints: initial resolution meeting, mediation, due process hearing, state appeal, civil action; 6. collect attorneys' fees if prevail in court
Congress' reasons for passing special education law
1. families paying for non-public ed far from home; 2. 1 million students with disabs excluded from pub ed; 3. nearly 4 million were not getting appropriate services; 4. students were not getting any related services; 5. believed state/local ed systems could provide approp ed with federal funding help
IDEA's 3 program plans
1. Individualized Family Service Plan: ages 0-3; 2. Individualized Education Plan: ages 4-21; 3. IEP with transition: ages 16-21
how IEP ensures access to general ed curriculum, as required by IDEA
1. indicates how disability affects involvement and progress; 2. annual goals reflect participation and progress; 3. describes program modifications or assessment accommodations; 4. indicates how student will participate in extracurricular/nonacademic activities; 5. discusses plans for integrating student with nondisab peers
service providers covered under IDEA (examples)
special ed teacher; paraprofessional; occupational therapist; physical therapist; resource specialist; consultant; job coach; home/hospital teacher; administrator
service providers NOT covered under IDEA (examples)
general ed teacher; school principal; advocates/attorneys; school nurse
IDEA displinary process/rules
1. placement in interim alternative educational setting:
- up to 10 days unless <weapons, drugs or cause serious injury>
- up to 45 days if <weapons...>
- must continue to provide services in IEP
2. IEP team meets to determine if:
- behavior is manifestation of student's disability OR
- behavior is due to failure to implement IEP
3. If YES: IEP team meets to consider adjusting current behavioral plan or conduct FBA to draft initial behavioral plan
4. If NO: student is subject to school's disciplinary policy, but IEP services must continue
5. School or parent has right to appeal team's decision on disciplinary action or placement change; hearing must occur within 20 school days, decision within 10 days
IDEA requirements for transition plans
1. set postsecondary goals; must be appropriate, measurable, evaluation-based
2. goals address training, education, employment, independent living
3. identify transition services and necessary coursework
4. inform student of rights (at age 16) upon reaching age of majority
5. annual updates from age 16
6. summary of student's accomplishments and needs provided with transition plan upon departure from secondary school
IDEA 2004 rules related to race/ethnicity
1. non-discriminatory testing
2. defines homeless children
3. requires school districts to cooperate to expedite evaluation of children changing schools (migrants, homeless)
IDEA requirements for "non-discriminatory testing"
1. not racially or culturally biased
2. administered in language or form most likely to yield useful info about child
3. used in accordance with original purpose
4. includes variety of assessment tools
5. administered by trained/knowledgeable person
Criticisms/controversy about special ed
1. ineffective/unnecessary
2. too costly
3. discriminatory
4. unfair administrative burden
5. serves too many students
6. segregates studetns
Law: Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act, 1973
1. basic civil rights for people with disabilities
2. set stage for special ed law
Law: Education for Handicapped Children Act (EHA), 1975
2. LRE
Law: 1986 EHA Reauthorization
1. adds infants & toddlers
2. adds IFSPs
Law: IDEA (EHA renamed)
1. adds transition plans
2. new categories: autism, TBI
3. 1990
Law: ADA
1. nondescrimination in workplace, transportation, telecom, public access
2. covers college kids with disabilities
3. introduces concept of "normalization"
4. 1990
Law: 1997 IDEA Reauthorization
1. adds behavior assessments, intervention plans
2. adds ADHD to OHI category
Law: No Child Left Behind Act (ESEA reuathorization)
1. national testing for 95% of students
2. reading and math proficiency for all by 2012
3. 2001
Law: 2004 IDEA Reauthorization
1. new category: specific learning disabilities
2. modified procedures for IEPs, evaluation, discipline
3. must participate in state/district testing
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954, no more "separate but equal"
Pennsylvania ARC v. Commonwealth of Pa.
1972, education for students with mental retardation
Mills v. Board of Education of D.C.
1972, education for all students with disabilities
Cedar Rapids School District v. Garrett
2000s, school pays for and provides health support during education
Wayzata Independent School District v. A.C.
2000s, school district must pay for private school if cannot provide necessary services
Describe the special education atmosphere in the 1800s
optimistic, energetic, caring
first special educator: Jean Itard, France
first in USA: Eduoard Sequin, brought Itard's ideas, founded AAMR in 1876
famous educators:
- Maria Montessori, Italy, cognitive disabilities
- Thomas Gallaudet, U.S., deaf
- Samuel Gridley Howe, U.S., blind
- Elizabeth Farrell, U.S., sp.ed in public schools
Describe the special education atmospher in the early 1900s (pre-WWII)
low period
overcrowded special schools
many still left out of education
neglect, poor care, segregation of kids with disabilities
disillusionment over not finding a "cure" for disabilities
early activists: professional groups
Describe the special education atmosphere after WWII
period of activism
age of opportunity and prosperity across U.S. led to more efforts for students with disabilities
rise of civil rights movement, created momentum for disability cause
activists: volunteers, parents
people with disabilities organized:
- World Institute on Disability
- National Council on Disability
Criticisms of IDEA regulations and IEP process
special ed teachers: too much paperwork
general ed teachers:
- not prepared to teach kids with disabilities
- not enough time to collaborate with special ed teachers
- creates antagonistic/litigious relationship between schools & parents
- too complicated/confusing
states: too costly
congress: results in unequal treatment of students with disabilities
limit, constraint
result of action
free appropriate public education
least-restrictive environment
individualized family service plan (ages 0-3 years)
movement from school to college or adult world
enabling person to live as closely as possible to the way general society lives
universal design
design of structures and products so people with or without disabilities can use them
special education
FILeRS: FAPE with IEP in LRE with Related Services
categorical approach to identifying students with disabilities
definition of students based on 13 categories specified by IDEA
inclusion of special students in general ed classrooms
total number of cases at a given time
excess cost
cost of educating a special ed student beyond cost of educating general ed student (typically costs twice as much)
individualized education program: framework for providing services and evaluating progress
authentic assessment
evaluation of student's abilities based on classroom work
curriculum-based measurement
day-to-day data gathering from classroom tasks to evaluate student's performace and effectiveness of teaching methods
portfolio assessment
evaluation of student's progress based on works from class, awards, etc. selected by student
functional behavioral assessment
evaluation of student behavior to determine the nature of the behavior, reasons for the behavior and under what conditions behavior occurs
procedural safeguards
provisions of IDEA to ensure rights and inclusion of parents
changes in how student receives information or demonstrates learning
adjustments in test-taking rules or environment
array of services
selection of services, in any order, that is flexible and responsive to a student's needs
continuum of services
a.k.a. cascade of services, incrementally increasing degrees of restriction or separation of child from general ed classroom for specific services
high-stakes testing
system of rewarding schools or punishing schools based on students' standardized test results
low-stakes testing
instead of penalties for low achievement by high numbers of difficult to teach students, schools receive more help based on test results
multicultural education
education that supports and extends concepts from students' cultural backgrounds
bilingual education
develops competence in English and native language; uses native language to help teach English
English language learners
a.k.a. limited English proficiency students; students whose native languages are not English; most rapidly growing segment of U.S. students
non-discriminatory testing
required by IDEA when determining eligibility for special ed
theory of multiple intelligences
developed by Howard Gardner, intelligence consists of 8 types
8 types of intelligence considered in theory of multiple intelligences
system of multicultural pluralistic assessment (SOMPA)
developed by Jane Mercer, test aimed at reducing bias in IQ testing; significantly reduces African American and Hispanic misidentification
cultural pluralism
social model that allows people to maintain ethnic languages, cultures and traditions while encouraging their participation in society
melting pot
social model that requires all people in U.S. to drop unique ethnic aspects and fit into homogenized notion of "American identity"
occurrence of more or fewer students in a category compared to their prevalence in the general population; minorities are overrepresented in special ed and underrepresented in gifted ed
cross-cultural dissonance
misalignment of home and school cultures, can cause friction or misunderstanding between educators and students/parents
code switching
using English and a native language within the same communication; NOT a disorder - a sign of deveoping dual-language proficiency
form of a language that varies from its literate or standard form; example: ebonics
Headstart, Early Headstart
underutilized federal programs that show early intervention works to identify children with disabilities; includes initial (baseline) health and development assessments for children from low-income families
basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS)
conversational language skills: 2-3 years to learn this level in a second language
cognitive/academic linguistic proficiency (CALP)
conceptual, complex language skills needed for academic tasks: 5-7 years to learn this level in a second language
cooperative learning
children work together on academic tasks, assisting and motivating each other
instructional tactic that gives students temporary support as they learn a new skill
direct reading instruction
systematic instruction of decoding skills: phonemic awareness, sound-letter correspondence, sounding out, blending words
Sam Kirk
1963: Father of Learning Disabilities field; developed Illinois test for learning styles
Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard
1799: Father of special education; taught basic living skills to "wild boy" thought to have MR
Elizabeth Farrell
1898: brought special ed. to public schools
Smiley Blanton
1914: opened first speech clinic at U of Wisconsin
Robert West
1925: Father of S/L field; founded precursor to ASHA
Lee Travis and Wendell Johnson
1900s: developed S/L program at U of Iowa; promoted expansion of field at organization and national levels
Don Deshler and Jean Shumaker
2000s: U of Kansas colleagues developed "learning strategies" to help middle and high school LD students
Don Hammill and Steve Larsen
1974: published research showing direct instruction works, ending "process vs. product" debate with Frostig's visual perceptual theory
Jim Lent
1976: Mimosa Cottage Project showed M.R. students could learn complex tasks and life/job skills
Benjt Nirje
1960s: Father of normalization movement
Madeline Will
1986: OSEP director who began push for inclusion
Otitis media
middle ear infection --> hearing difficulties
pop-up text/media on computers to expand explanation of material, vocabulary
computer-assisted instruction
use of computer functions to supplement teaching; enhanced explanations of concepts; extra drill and practice; translation of print text to audio/speech; additional motivation for learning via web-based learning, peer-peer e-mail
social competence
ability to perceive and interpret social situations, generate appropriate social response and interact with others
inactive learner
student who does not approach learning task purposefully; not actively involved, asking questions, seeking help, extra reading
self-explanation of causes of success or failure
inner drive that energizes and directs behavior
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity more frequent and more severe than typical peers, occurring in more than one setting
learning disability
unexpected underachievement, possibly due to information processing problem, possibly connected to central nervous system malfunction
Percentage of LD students graduating
Percentage of ADHD students with LDs
Percentage of LD students with poor social skills
Percentage of LD students among all students
Percentage of LD students among students with disabilities
Percentage of LD students among college students
Percentage of LD students among college students with disabilities
Characteristics of student with Learning Disabilities
potential is greater than performance (unexpected underachievement); not caused by other factors; often manifest in language-related areas; learning problems are specific and confined to one or two cognitive areas; normal intelligence; problems connected to central nervous system, information processing deficits or ability to learn -- characteristics not in definitions: does not learn in same way as peers; does not learn as efficiently as peers; resistant to gen. ed. interventions; may coexist with ADHD
controversy/criticism of LD category
not specific enough, results in dumping ground for low achievers; inconsistently diagnosed state-by-state; huge category; no uniform classification system
types of LDs
general unexpected underachievement; reading/LDs - acquire skills differently, slower; math/LDs - difficulty retrieving from long-term memory; coexisting LDs/ADHD
How to identify LDs
"discrepancy formula" determines whether gap between achievement and potential is significant and cause of academic failures; IQ test vs. standardized test; IDEA '04: discrepancy does not have to be "severe" if student does not respond to validated interventions in gen. ed. classroom
Possible causes of LDs
low oxygen --> brain damage; genetics --> reading problems; poverty --> limited health care, unstable/unsupportive environment
Possible prevention of LDs
* if don't know cause, it's hard to prevent; early intervention builds foundation for reading; systematic academic intervention, using learning strategies, peer tutoring, direct instruction
Academic signs/characteristics of LD student
inability to solve problems; inefficient info processing abilities; inability to generalize; unexpected underachievement; resistant to treatment; difficult to teach; uneven academic abilities; inactive learning style; poor basic language skills; poor basic reading/decoding skills
Social signs/characteristics of LD student
immature; socially unacceptable; misinterprets social and nonverbal cues; makes poor decisions; victimized; unable to predict social consequences; unable to follow social conventions/manners; rejected; naive; shy; dependent
Behavioral signs/characteristics of LD student
inattentive; unmotivated/negative attribution; distractable; hyperactive; impulsive; poorly coordinated; disorganized; dependent
learned helplessness
student is too dependent on others, expects failure, fears failure, has low self-esteem
key strategies for addressing attention deficits: impulsivity
peer behavior management: students reinforce positive behavior; students do not feed attention-seeking negative behavior; students track + and - behavior
key strategies for addressing attention deficits: inattention
organizational skill development: peer assistance; imporved communication between home and school; rewards; structured routines, lists
root characteristics of academic underachievement in LD student
lack of motivation/poor attribution; inattention; inability to generalize; faulty info processing; insufficient problem-solving skills
teaching methods for lack of motivation/poor attribution
show relationship between effort and accomplishment; teach learning strategies that work, result in accomplishment
teaching methods for inattention
teach organizational skills; use advance organizers for lessons; peer assistance; structured routines, lists; communication between home and school
teaching methods for inability to generalize
show connections between familiar problems and new problems; gradually broaden categories and show similarities
teaching methods for faulty info processing
repeat important info; organize content systematically; provide relevant info; use exmaples familiar to students; associate content with familiar info
teaching methods for insufficient problem-solving skills
promote thinking skills: classifying - grouping based on common characteristics; associating - relate info by a common denominator; sequencing - putting items in order in memory
assessment of LD student's social skills
standardized tools: Walker-McConnell Scales of Social Competence and School Adjustment; School Social Behvior Scales; must observe problems in more than one setting by more than one person
steps to improve LD student's social skills
social skills training programs - use modeling, coaching, practice and feedback to address specific skill deficits; responsive classroom approach - direct instruction on social skills; pairing with non-LD students for modeling, support
foundation skills for reading (early intervention is critical!)
phonological awareness; letter-sound correspondence; decoding; sight word recognition; fluency; comprehension
children at risk for developing LDs
not talking by age 3; low birth weight; premature babies; poor children; kids with communication problems; kids not developing reading foundation skills
examples of validated teaching methods for LDs
direct instruction of specific skills; lots of drill, repetition, practice; small group work; breaking units into small segments; teaching learning strategies
tactics for improving reading comprehension
teacher-led questioning; text enhancements: illustrations, study guides; student restates content of passage; skill-based insruction with rewards; oral reading for fluency; story maps; motivation: reading is key to successful future; protection from embarrassment in front of class
elements of Learning Strategies approach
especially powerful for LD kids, who lack strategic skills; highly structured materials; advance organizers; mnemonics; build-in direct evaluation (CBM)
characteristics of collaborative teaching environment
open, continuous communication; voluntary participation; parity between teachers; shared goals; continual evaluation of student; shared decision-making; pooled resources; trust/respect; scheduled planning time
including LD kids in general ed classroom
* most need some assistance/accomodations; adapt textbooks, instructional materials; more instructional time; assitance choosing which learning strategy to apply; tutoring for academic skills
curriculum options for LD kids
1. general curriculum; 2. life skills; 3. functional; 4. vocational ** teacher must recognize when #1 is not appropriate/useful for student
identification of kids with LDs
most identified by educator; most identified in 3rd grade; most parents do not suspect LDs; family support from educators/admins is critical - especially emotional support
elements of successful parent-school conferences
comfortable setting; educator listens; teacher writes down signif info parent shares; parent knows how many meetings, how long they will last; clearly stated purpose; clear, precise info is presented; info is restated with examples; no jargon; professional attitude; feedback on child's academic, social performance; results/notes on meeting recorded; educators flexible in scheduling
discrepancy formula
determines whether gap between achievement and potential is significant and cause of academic failures
lateral dominance
preference for using either right or left side for motor skills - some believe mixed dominance is connected to poor reading
transfer of learning from particular instances to other environments, circumstances
classifying (chunking)
organizational thinking skill: grouping items in terms of common characteristics - assists with memorizing
organizational thinking skill: ability to see relationships among different concepts
organizational thinking skill: putting items or information in order (size, chronological, etc.) to aid memory
information processing theory
from Janet Lerner: compares function of human brain to computer - input stimuli/senses --> memory/brain --> output devices/communication, action, behavior
phonological awareness
awareness of sound segments in words
Ladder to literacy
from J.Jenkins: 1. phonological awareness; 2. letter-sound correspondence; 3. decoding; 4. sight word recognition; 5. fluency; 6. comprehension
early intervention success rate: reading
not just decoding or comprehension; reflection of a greater set of skills and abilities that include reflective thinking
story maps
diagrams used to assist students in organizing and recalling elements from stories; help students remember content by requiring them to paraphrase the informatoin
learning strategies
from D.Deshler/J.Schumaker, U-Kansas: research-based method, teaches students tactics for learning and remembering information more efficiently
accommodating for inclusive environments - steps
1. provide structure and a standard set of expectations; 2. adjust instructional materials and activities; 3. give students feedback and reinforce success; 4. make tasks interesting
accommodating for inclusive environments for LD students - examples
1. structure/expectations: help students develop organizational skills, establish rules for academic and social activities; 2. individualize instruction, break tasks down into chunks; 3. point out good behavior, inform students when not meeting expectations; 4. make assignments interesting/novel; vary format of instruction/activities
homework strategy to teach students how to complete homework: Prepare monthly planning calendar and weekly study schedule; Record and ask for assignment clarification; Organize - BEST (Break into parts, Estimate number of study sessions, Schedule sessions, Take your materials); Jump to it; Engage in work; Check your work; Turn in assignment
Tips for teachers assigning and adapting homework
1. make sure students can complete assignment; 2. write assignment on board; 3. explain assignment carefully; 4. remind students of due date periodically; 5. coordinate with other Ts to avoid assigning too much; 6. establish with Ps and other Ts standard policy for late/missed assignments; 7. provide one-on-one assistance; 8. allow for alternative formats or use of learning tools; 9. adjust assignment length; 10. provide access to peer tutor
communication signals
announce some immediate event, person, action or emotion
communication symbols
used to relay messages: speech = vocal symbols, letters = written symbols, sign language = gestural symbols
communication process
SENDER: thought --> signal/symbol --> delivery mechanism --> MESSAGE; RECEIVER: receiving mechanism --> signl/symbol --> thought
process of exchanging knowledge, ideas, opinions, feelings through use of verbal or nonverbal language
rule-based method of communication involving comprehension and use of signs and symbols by which ideas are expressed
vocal production of language
respiratory system
takes in oxygen and expels gases; activates vocal system when expelling air; diaphragm, chest, throat muscles
vocal system
production of voice, by expelled air vibrating vocal folds in larynx (vibrating system)
resonating system
throat, mouth, nasal cavities that help shape speech sounds
speech mechanisms
tongue, soft and hard palates, teeth, lips, jaw - shape voice into speech sounds
speech impairments
abnormal speech that is unintelligible, unpleasant, or interferes with communication
three major types of speech impairments
1. articulation problems - most common - flawed process of producing sounds; 2. fluency problems - abnormal rate and flow pattern of speech, includes stuttering; 3. voice problems - uncommon in school children, can be sign of health problem - abnormal pitch or loudness
language impairments
difficulty in mastering or inability to master the various systems of rules in language, which then interferes with communication
language delay
development of language skills in correct sequence but slower than peers; common in MR children
language difference
non-native English speaking, or speaking non-standard English; NOT an impairment
the sound system of language, includes rules that govern various sound combinations
set of rules that govern the parts that form the meanings and structures of words, includes prefixes and suffixes
where a word is placed in a sentence or phrase, helps determine the meaning of the communication
reflects the intent and meanings of spoken or written statements
the system where the intent and meanings of words aand sentences make up the content of the communication
application of language in various communications according to the social context of the situation
the study of language in context
communicative competence
from Norma Ruiz: what a speaker needs to know to communicate appropriately - what may be said and what should not be said; when, where, and by whom; for what purposes - in addition to the linguistic knowledge necessary to produce grammatical utterances
Test of Language Development
standardized test used to identify S/L impairments
four kinds of articulation errors
omission - leaving out sound or group of sounds in a word; substitution - one sound used for another in a word; distortion - variation of intended sound; addition - extra sound inserted to one correctly pronounced
ESSAY: What does it mean to have a disability?
Definitions of disabilities vary by culture, attitudes, beliefs, orientation, discipline; some view in terms of differences certain individuals have from the majority - societal habit of focusing on people's differences; some view in terms of ability to function in society or limitations not imposed by external factors; some view problem is societal organization, not individual characteristics - debatable whether a disability must also be a handicap for participation in mainstream society
ESSAY: Where did special ed come from and why did it develop?
disabilities documented way back (Roman times), not treated as people - freaks, entertainment; late 1700s people experimented with helping some learn skills (Itard); attitude shift from shunned to protected; 1800s Seguin, first treatise on sp.ed., Howe, Gallaudet first institutions, Farrell programs in pub schools; early 1900s compulsory school laws put kids with disabs in schools in larger numbers; sp. schools overcrowded; attitude shifts negative: disillusionment, fear of unfamiliar, exclusion; post-WWII age of opportunity spawns new efforts to understand, teach disabs; today's special ed resulted from disability rights movement of 1970s-80s: Section 504, ADA, EHA (IDEA); EHA/IDEA because families paid for schooling (1 mill. excluded from pub sch.); many kids w/disabs were not identified; Congress thought states could deliver with fed financial assistance (up to 40% of extra cost); Mills v. D.C. Bd. of Ed.: all students entitled to free public ed
ESSAY: What are some solutions to problems faced by students with disabs and the educators charged with meeting their needs?
responsive, flexible, creative problem solving; eds more responsive to families, listen to what they need; sp.educators must develop goals, articulate field's purpose, standards, expectations; sp.educators must rely on research-based, validated techniques
ESSAY: What is the role of the IEP team?
set goals and objectives for student, with normalization in mind; set benchmarks - evaluation for progress toward goals; determine necess services; develop educ plan that directs educators' efforts to move student toward goals and objs; meets (at least annually) to review/adjust goals, services, placement
ESSAY: What factors must be considered when determining the LRE for individual students?
goals and objs; desired adult outcomes for student; array of services needed to work toward IEP goals/objs; placement that will enable student to make best progress when receiving each of those services - can vary by service; whether student will benefit more from inclusive setting for a service or from a self-contained setting; some researchers argue when possible, student's preference/experiences should be considered
ESSAY: What are the different educational placement options that make up the continuum of services for special education?
gen.ed classroom with consultative/collaborative t; gen.ed classroom with co-teaching sp.ed and gen.ed Ts; gen.ed with scheduled pull-in support from specialists; gen. ed. with periodic itinerant, consultative svcs; pull-out to resource room for some instruction; partially self-contained classroom; self-contained sp.ed classroom within reg. school; special (center) school; residential special school; home/hospital education
ESSAY: How should the array of educational services and suports available to students with disabilities be implemented?
identify placement based on individual's needed services/supports; at required intensity; for duration needed to meet goal/obj; with collaboration among eds, admins, fams, community - provide frequent feedback/updates to families (not just when there is a problem); conduct frequent evals of student progress to determine if interventions/techniques are effective or should be changed; flexible program with creative, engaging, fun, motivating techniques and materials
ESSAY: What is multicultural and bilingual special education, and who is served by such programs?
multicultural: sp.ed designed to include and celebrate various cultures of its students, incorporating cultural references, traditions, values into curric and lessons; bilingual: sp.ed designed to provide instruction in student's native language while also developing English language proficiency, uses native language to explain difficult concepts or teach academic skills and encourages gradual transferral of skills to English; served: growing number of students in U.S., especially Spanish speakers, also Native Ams., who have high rate of disabilities compared to other racial/ethnic groups
ESSAY: In what ways can biases occur in the identification and assessment process?
Cross-cultural dissonance or outright racial/ethnic bias --> lack of understanding of different cultural norms, mistaking certain cultural behaviors for indicators of disability, especially behavior issues or learning difficulties; Use of standardized test, especially IQ tests - culturally loaded content; difficulty with English among ELLs - sometimes construed as language impairment instead of difference or delay; in testing, administrator is not proficient in student's native lang, no accommodations made for lang differences
ESSAY: Why are educators so concerned about culturally or linguistically diverse children?
many at risk for disabs due to low socio-economic status - low birth weight, high mobility, poor nutrition, no vaccinations, limited health care and prenatal care, poor neighborhoods/schools; many at risk for low acad achievement, dropping out; cultural diffs btw home and school make understanding appropriate behavior difficult; achieving ESL proficiency is difficult while also learning in Engl; Ts unprepared, unfamiliar with various cultures
ESSAY: What is considered overrepresentation in special education and underrepresentation in ed for the gifted?
overrep: proportion of students from a particular race/ethnicity classified as having a disab is larger than proportion of race/eth in general student population - example: in MR; underrep: when proportion of a race/ethnicity in gifted prog is smaller than proportion of race/eth in gen population - ex: asian ams.
ESSAY: How can school personnel integrate childern's home cultures and languages in to the educational environment and curric?
increase communication opps btw school and fams despite lang diffs - consider fam's preferred/most effective comm mechanism; invite members of fam and community, esp cultural leaders, to participate in classroom and extracurric activities; use cultural references and materials throughout curric; design lessons incorporating cultural traditions, holidays; put posters on walls referencing diff cultures, have items available in classroom, use them in lessons; for lang, if possible use bilingual Ts or non-biling Ts make effort to learn basics of student's language; encourage cooperative learning and study groups
ESSAY: What measures can be taken to reduce the overrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in disability categories and their underrep in gifted?
eliminate biases from identification/assessment process; address causes of disabilities unusually prevalent in certain ethnic groups; eliminate poverty; broaden concept of abilities - adjust societal attitude toward disabs; include all in high stakes testing; use culturally sensitive and liguistically appropriate curricula and instruction; include diverse students' fams and communities in school life
ESSAY: What are the key features of most definitions of learning disabs?
normal IQ; discrepancy btw IQ and achievement; probs often manifested in lang-related areas; not due to MR, lack of ed opps, poverty, cultural diffs, other disabs; central nervous system, information processing deficits, inability to learn; probs confined to one or two cognitive areas
ESSAY: Why is there a call for a new definition of LDs, and how might it be different?
huge category, increasing over past 10 ys - 6% of all students and more than 50% of sp.ed students have LD; inconsistent identification, use of LD as dumping ground for low achievers; new definition: change so fewer students fit; remove discrepancy formula; use "unexpected underachievement;" include "resistant to treatment;" premit early intervention to prevent reading probs
ESSAY: Why is it correct to consider LDs a lifelong condition?
though students can learn strategies for coping with LDs, they never go away, so will need those strategies their whole lives; reading probs can limit postsecondary options; social competence probs result in lack of friends, social isolation; high dropout rates negatively affect employment/income potential
ESSAY: What constitutes an appropriate education for LD students, and in what setting should it be provided?
access to gen.ed curric, instruction using validated practices, necessary accommodations, array of services at necessary intensity and individualization; setting determined by intensity of services and supports needed
How might the array of services be reconceptualized for students with LDs?
stronger, more proactive early intervention; longer prereferral phase; application of validated practices in gen.ed program; more accommodations; systematic levels of more and more intensive intervention to identify those resistant to treatment
ESSAY: How do language delays, language differences and language impairments differ?
only language impairments qualify as a disability; impairments mean lang is developed in abnormal sequence; delays are development of lang in normal sequence but slower than typical learner - can be precursor to lang impairment but not always; differences are result of student speaking lang other than English or regional dialect, not a disab but can result in misidentification for spec.ed
ESSAY: How can teachers enhance language development and help to remediate a language impairment?
Ts match own language to student's level; adjust/modify/supplement instruction; anchor lessons to student's experience and culture; give multiple examples; use concrete referents; use visual organizers; identify predictable story elements; modify curric; create language-rich classrooms; collaborate with SLPs
ESSAY: What is alternative and augmentative communication, and how does it benefit students with speech and language impairments?
AAC uses technology to enable people with S/L imps to communicate; examples include picture boards (low-tech) or speech-synthesizers (high-tech); can give students with S/L imps greater access to gen.ed curric by enabling them to communicate with gen.ed Ts and non-disab peers; facilitates lang remediation and development by enabling them to communicate while learning skills
ESSAY: How might the general education and special education curricula be modified to better develop the language and literacy abilities of students? How can SLPs help?
more direct instruction for language development and foundation skills for literacy (phonemic awareness, letter-sound connection); more supports and accommodations; language-related games, activities, classroom materials; SLPs provide assessment and identification, individualized therapy, collaborative teaching, family intervention and follow-through
ESSAY: How are levels of severity and outcomes of mental retardation grouped?
mild = IQ 50-69, learning difficulties, able to work, maintain good social relationships, contribute to society; moderate = 35-49, marked developmental delays during childhood, some degree of independence in self-care, adequate comm and acad skills, require supports to live and work in community; severe = 20-34, continuous need of supports; profound = below 20, severe limitation in self-care, continence, communication, mobility, in continuous need of supports
ESSAY: How are the causes of mental retardation categorized and what are some major causes?
grouped by time of onset. prenatal, before birth: mother's intake of substances (FAS), genetics (PKU, down, fragile-X), hydrocephaly; perinatal, during birth: anoxia, asphyxia (brain damage), low birth weight, head trauma; postnatal, after birth: lead poisoning, physical abuse, societal biases
ESSAY: What are the four sources of supports for MR?
natural: family, friends, neighbors; nonpaid: community organizations, clubs; generic: services available to general public; specialized: sp.ed., vocational ed., related
ESSAY: What are two specialized instructional approaches for students with mental retardation?
functional/life skills curric: instruction in skills and behaviors needed to live independently in society, such as responsibility, money management, safety, cooking, job skills, navigating public transit; community-based learning: instruction in life and/or job skills through real-life experiences in the community rather than simulated experiences in classroom
ESSAY: How can educators be more effective when working with families of students with mental retardation?
develop meaningful partnerships with fams; recognize all signif fam members (immediate and extended); understand fam support extends well beyond school years (whole life for many); include whole fam in info and planning mtgs for student's ed.programs
ESSAY: What are some examples of the four levels of supports and how do they make a differenc ein the lives of people with MR?
primary goal for MR is to live with autonomy and self-direction, normalized living and satisfying personal relationships; flexible and responsive system of supports is necessary; natural: family, friends, neighbors - easy-to-access support system for daily needs, friendships help build social and comm skills; non-paid: Best Buddies, church groups, Special Olympics - create opps for friendships, social interaction, skill development; general: library programs, public transit - enable person to participate in society with assistance; specialized: school, voc program, job coach - enable student to acquire important skills for participating in society, create access to work force
device that creates a closure between the oral and nasal cavities when the soft palate is missing or damaged, helps compensate for cleft palate
ESSAY: Discuss three of the cited criticisms of special education, and the respective merits or weaknesses of those arguments.
discriminatory: merit= improve assess to reduce race/eth bias and improve placement to better fit student's needs, but will not necess result in more inclusion - most imporant issue is what child needs; too costly (districts, admins): merit= if no additional funds from fed govt money to provide sp.ed svcs comes from other ed progs, weakness= maj of sp.ed kids served in gen.ed classroom so T prep and collab can control need for extra funds, benefit to society is worth it in lower incarceration or burden on soc.svcs; serves too many students (cong): merit= classification of some disabs needs fine-tuning and race/eth bias can reduce rolls further
ESSAY: Discuss the implications of IDEA ’04 regarding FAPE and the discipline of students with disabilities.
'04 instituted discipline rules to appease Ps and Ts concerns about safety - if sp.ed students are exempt from discipline - and Ps and advocates concerns about providing FAPE - if sp.ed students are subject to same discip rules as non-disab students
ESSAY: Describe a culturally or linguistically diverse minority group, including ethnic background, language differences, school and academic performance, family involvement, and social and educational needs.
Am.Indians: hundreds of tribes, hundreds of diff langs - students are ELLs; high incidence of pov and related probs - students are high risk for disabs; some cultural norms differ from euro-am. - cross-cultural dissonance can create misunderstandings; extended fam/tribal unit plays role in raising each child - important to involve in classroom/school events
reciprocal teaching
teaching tactic where Ts and Ss switch roles predicting, summarizing, questioning and clarifying reading passages
ESSAY: Explain the concept of nondiscriminatory testing.
Assessment that properly takes into account a child's cultural and linguistic diversity.
ESSAY: Explain how legislators addressed the IQ discrepancy concerns in IDEA ’04.
IQ disc formulas are used to determine LDs - states set own standards, but discrepancy btw IQ and acad perf must be present; due to concerns about discrim IQ tests and necessity that student fail dramatically before qualifying, '04 added discrepancy need not be severe if research-validated interventions in gen.ed classroom have no impact; benefit=children/fams no longer have to wait until student "fails enough" to warrant classification
ESSAY: Differentiate between speech impairments and language impairments by describing each one and giving an example of each.
sp.imp is difficulty delivering oral comm, examples: stuttering, voice in unusual/annoying pitch or volume, substitution of one sp.sound for another; lang.imp is difficulty understanding, processing or formulating lang, whether reading, writing or speaking, examples: no phono awareness, incorrect syntax
articulation problems
most common speech problem; flawed process of producing speech sounds; consider age, culture, environment when diagnosing
fluency problems
problems with rate and flow pattern of speech; includes stuttering; young child's 3-5 yrs) dysfluency NOT impairment
voice problems
uncommon in young, but sign of possible health issue; unusual pitch or loudness
age at which 90% of children pronounce all 24 speech sounds correctly
8.5 yrs.
three areas to test for speech problems
voice, fluency, articulation
three areas to test for language problems
form, content, use
why are language impairments potentially more serious than speech impairments?
because they impact many aspects of classroom experience - speak, write, comprehend language, social interaction
S/LI relationship to LDs, by age
clear association btw LI and LD; population of S/LI > LD up to 8 yrs.; LD > S/LI after 8 and increasingly
where S/LI problems are addressed
Since 1970s: minor problems in gen.ed classroom with SLP assistance; major problems pull-out to SLP
causes of speech impairments
brain damage, respiratory or speech mechanism malfunction, errors in use of speech mechanism, malformation of articulators (ex: cleft palate)
cleft palate prevalence
1/500 Asian Ams, 1/750 whites, 1/2000 Af.Ams
causes of language impairments
brain injury: aphasia; health: otitis media, viral encephalitis; genetics; environment: quality/quantity of early language input, opps to develop cognition/language
prevention of S/L impairments
immunization, prenatal care (folic acid during pregnancy reduces chance of cleft lip/palate 25-50%), reduce poverty, better nutrition
signs of speech impairments
consisten age-inappropriate articulation errors, dysfluencies, poor voice quality, excessively loud or soft voice
signs of language impairments
unable to follow oral directions, unable to match letters w/sounds, inadequate vocabulary, poor concept formation, difficulty conveying messages, difficulty expressing personal needs
environmental restructuring
teaching students about behavioral relationships (causes and effects of actions) to change behavior to be instructive/supportive of peers
impacts of speech impairments
limited or no academic impact; difficulty in social interactions, desire to withdraw from such situations, possible behavior problems due to lack of acceptance/interaction
impacts of language impairments
social competence: inferior social skills, difficulty with conflict resolution, desire to withdraw; cognitive/academic performance: difficulty mastering reading, link to LDs at school age
concurrence of language impairments with LDs
recommended preschool child-staff ratios for language prep and school readiness (from Am Public Health Assoc and Am Acad of Pediatrics)
3:1 infants, 4:1 2 yr-olds, 7:1 3-yr-olds
early intervention tactics for language development
foster cooperative play, encourage spontaneous talking, facilitate peer social interactions, develop responsiveness with conversational partners, guide parents in creation of pro-language home environ.
teaching tactics for preschool language development
connect oral, written and print lang through telling, reading, enacting, creating stories; visit pub library; interesting classroom materials; place materials within view but out of reach; provide insufficient materials; give children choices, opps to express preferences; create situations in which children must ask for help; create absurd/surprising situations; encourage "make believe" situations
skills in phonemic awareness
knows alphabet; separates sentences into words, words into syllables; rhymes; predicts words from sounds; matches letter name with object, sound with object
teaching tactics for phonemic awareness
nursury rhymes, simple poems and finger plays with rhymes, point out rhymes in classroom conversation, clap/count syllables, rhyme words spoken by student, sort picture cards by initial/medial/final sounds, have students delete sounds in words, read stories with rhyming words
examples of visual organizers for help students see relationships between concepts and words
semantic feature analysis, attribute web, venn diagram, multiple-meaning tree, script and story framework
creating language-sensitive classroom
incoroprate varied, stimulating opportunities for langue use in classroom routines and curric
how SLPs assist progress from language to literacy
collaboration with Ts is critical! encourage Ts to provide instruction on phonics, basic reading skills; provide knowledge of sound-symbol relationships; help sp.ed and gen.ed Ts understand basic units of words, sounds to develop lessons to teach phono awareness; help Ts develop language-rich activities linking oral and print language
collaborative consultation
shared responsibility for problem definition, planning, provision of services and evaluation of outcomes
rate of inclusion of students with S/L impairments
89% solely in gen.ed classroom; 7% resource room visits
students with S/L impairments graduation rate
language-development strategies for the home
label objects, describe object child plays with, encourage repetition of correct counds, ask questions requiring expanded answers, model language, encourage storytelling
examples of alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) devices
obturator, artificial larynx, communication board, speech talker, speech synthesizer
evolution of definition of mental retardation
1960s-70s: divided into educable MR or trainable MR; pre 1992: deficit model described individual's limitations; 1992: defines in terms of levels of supports needed to function in community, moved away from IQ; 2002: back to IQ but retains positive outlook of 1992
guaging intellectual functioning of student with mental retardation
IQ below 70; intellec. functioning below levels attained by 97% of gen. population; determined by clinical judgement or IQ test
adaptive behavior
the collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives
adaptive skill areas, examples
conceptual: money, self-direction, reading/writing, language; social: interpersonal, gullibility, obeying laws, self-esteem, responsibility; practical: life skills, self-help, safety, occup. skills
levels of intensity of supports for people with mental retardation
intermittent, limited, extensive, pervasive
identification of students with MR
assess intellectual functioning (IQ; Iowa allows CBM) + adaptive skills (standardized test: Assessment of Adaptive Areas); NOT mental age
public reactions to mental retardation
stigmatization, fear --> eugenics, institutionalization, termination of pregnancy, name-calling
not allowing individuals to procreate, in misguided effort to preserve or improve species
history of mental retardation
late 1700s: Itard and Victor; 1848: S.G.Howe expanded blind institution to include MR; 1876: AAMR formed (under diff name); 1917: all but 4 states had institutions; 1954: parents founded the ARC; 1960s: B.Nirje introduces normalization; 1965: B.Blatt exposed institution conditions; 1960s-70s: new research, Mimosa Cottage Project; 1970s: self-advocacy group People First; 1976: B.Perske introduces dignity of risk
dignity of risk
premise that people with MR should experience life's challenges and not be overprotected
Mimosa Cottage Project
J.Lent, 1976: demonstrated that people with MR could learn complex tasks and skills for daily life, job
prevalence of MR
slightly more than 1% of students; most "mild"
over/underrepresentation of race/ethnicity in MR 34% of MR but 14.5% of gen.pop; under=hispanic: 9% of MR but 16% gen.pop
five major causes of MR
genetics (20%), toxins, low birth weight, child abuse, bias/misidentification; infections=11%, trauma=11%, prematurity=4%
neural tube disorders
cause of MR; anencephaly (part of brain missing), spina bifida (incomplete closure of spinal column)
cause of MR; oxygen deprivation
genetic caust of MR; person is unable to metabolize certain amino acids found in milk - buildup can cause brain damage
fragile-X syndrome
most common genetic cause of MR; mutation on X chromosome
down syndrome
genetic cause of MR; 3 chromos in 21st pair instead of 2
epicanthic fold
characteristic of down syndrome; extra fold at inner corner of eye
coexistent disabilities/probs with down syndrome
vast majority with down have multiple disabs: 78% have hearing loss; S/L impairments; higher prevalence of obesity
fetal alcohol syndrome
cause of MR; result of mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy; nearly half with FAS qualify for sp.ed
potential cause of MR; build-up of fluids in brain ventricles causing expansion, pressure on brain, eventually brain damage
tactics for improving generalization of skills
set functional, relevant learning goals; get student's attention before beginning instruction; keep students actively involved; teach with real materials; vary materials and examples; vary instructors; be sure skill is mastered in at least one setting; vary settings, include environ where skill will be applied; provide opps for practice; phase out adult assistance
ability to transfer skill from specific learning situation to other applications and settings
how to improve adaptive behavior
direct instruction + supports; think of goals in terms of interdependence, not total independence (unrealistic for severe, profound)
Best Buddies
Anthony Shriver, 1989: program links college students with individuals with MR, to promote natural supports/friendships
benefits of inclusive preschools
no worries about statewide/districtwide assessments yet; children with and without disabs play together; children with disabs shows higher rate of social interaction than noninclusive school; typical children have no negative consequences; typical children show greater appreciation and respect for individual differences
functional curriculum
focuses on life skills
(progressive) time delay
research-validated practice; T asks question, waits shorter and shorter lengths of time for student to give answer before T gives it, T tracks prompted and unprompted correct and incorrect responses
task analysis
breaking down problem or tast into smaller, sequenced parts (chain); can teach as forward chaining or reverse chaining
community-based instruction
teaching functional skills and adaptive behaviors in the environments in which they should occur naturally; helps with generalization
steps to keep students engaged (behav management) through feedback
1. make behav. expectations clear; 2. prompt or remind students how they should behave; 3. continually involve them in instruction; 4. tell students how they are doing; 5. ensure students understand consequences of continual disruptions; 6. be prepared to use punitive measures
supported employment
students are helped in locating a job, learning skills needed for it, and keeping the job
job developer
seeks/discovers or designs work for students with MR
job coach
works alongside person with MR, helping them learn all parts of the job
the attitudes and abilities required to act on one's own behalf, to make decisions for oneself and to make choices; based on principles of freedom, authority, support, responsibility
proportion of siblings expecting to take active role in assisting person with MR at some point