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48 Cards in this Set

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What does the Divine Command Theory say?
Right and wrong (good and bad) are only and always determined by God's commands
What is theism?
Belief in God
What are the three principles of basic monotheism?
1. God is creator
2. God is rational
3. God has perfect moral goodness
Explain the Euthyphro Dilenna
1. If the DCT exists, then God is not rational
2. If the DCT exists, then God is not the Creator
3. DCT exists or doesn't exist
4. Therefore, either God is not rational, or God is not the creator
Where does a worldview come from?
Inherent (image of God), conscious education, experience, culture, other people
Define myth
A story that had foundational importance to a culture or religion
Does it matter whether a myth is true or false?
No, it must just have a high importance to a culture; truth or un-truth is insignificant
What is the main arguement of Mere Christianity?
Everyone recognizes a moral law; if everyone recognizes it, it must exist
According to Mere Christianity, where does moral law come from?
God
Where must any standard of morality come from?
Somewhere outside the given system
What is the standard of right and wrong for Christianity?
The character of God
How does theism (as in, natural law) lead to deism?
Superstition --> Science
God's sustaining power --> Independence of natural laws
Living world --> Mechanical world
What is "exuberance of knowledge?"
We are understanding, and will continue, and we do not need to talk about God's intervention in the world
Define the "God and Gaps" theory
We used God to fill gaps we didn't understand
What is Aristotleianism?
The Earth is the center of the universe, and is supported based on self-evidently true principles
Define rationalism
You start with principles you believe to be true, then argue general statements using these principles
What is empiricism?
What can be measured
What does empiricism say about the universe?
The sun is the center - supported by observation
Name two problems with deism
1. Whatever is, is right
2. No free will, therefore there is no right or wrong (people are not responsible for their actions)
What does "ex nihilio" mean?
Out of nothing (aka creation)
What part do morals, values, and universals play in nihilism?
None, they do not exist (due to absence of free will)
How do we get from naturalism to nihilism?
1. Cause and effect
2. Closed system leads to determinism
3. Past events influence future ones
4. Chance
What are some bridges to nihilism from naturalism?
1. Determinism leads to moral nihilism
2. Skepticism leads to solipsism
3. Is vs. ought problem
"I am the only thing that exists in the universe" is an example of what?
Solopsism
What did Descartes say about skepticism?
You know you can't always trust your senses, so when DO you trust them?
What worldview is a reaction to nihilism?
Existentialism
What is the main difference between a western and an eastern worldview?
Eastern gets rid of logic and reason (they are based on a dualism, therefore not good/applicable)
Define monism
There is only one thing that the world is made out of (kind of like "The Force" in Star Wars)
What are the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
1. Life is suffering
2. The origin of suffering is attachment
3. Cessation of suffering is possible
4. Path to the cessation of suffering is possible (Noble 8-Fold Path)
What is the Noble Eight-Fold Path of Buddhism
1. Right view
2. Right intention
3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right livelihood
6. Right effort
7. Right mindfulness
8. Right concentration
What are the seven basic worldview questions?
1. God
2. Cosmos
3. Humanity
4. Death
5. Ethics
6. Epistemology
7. History
Premodern worldviews put being before knowing, what is the opposite of this view?
Postmodernism: knowing before being
What is the importance of a narrative in the postmodern view?
The telling of the story creates the meaning, and a focus on individual narratives
What is a meta-narrative?
A story that explains the world for everyone
What does the rejection of the meta-narrative lead to?
Pluralism, tolerance, multiculturalism
What are some critisms of postmodernism?
1. To claim there are no meta-narratives is a meta-narrative in itself
2. To claim there is no truth is a truth claim in itself
3. Category of relativism (no standards should equal no category for them)
4. Why should you care about pluralism, tolerance, multiculturalism?
What is the main belief of rationalism?
Certain obviously true propositions must be the ultimate foundation of our knowledge
What did Descartes say that relates to rationalism?
God must exist, and He's not a deceiver THERFORE you can trust your senses THEREFORE there is an outside world
Explain the idea of certainty in empiricism
Complete certainty: in the relationship between ideas

Can be no complete certainty in the relationship of ideas with external facts
What is induction?
Repeated observation
Why is induction not entirely certain?
No matter how many times something has happened, there's no guarantee that it will happen again
Why is cause and effect not entirely certain?
Actually an illusion, we can't use reasoning from our experience to make conclusions about the world
What are the three kinds of sense perceptions?
1. Original
2. Memory of original
3. Mind-combinations of the two above
In empiricism, where do our ideas come from?
Originally come from our sense perceptions
According to pragmatism, what is belief?
A predisposition to work certain ways under certain circumstances
How do we know something is true in pragmatism?
It corresponds with the way the world really is (truth means that it works, is successful)
Our beliefs are really just _____ for action (pragmatism)
Rules
How to accept a belief in pragmatism:
1. Its actions are useful to me
2. It fits in well with the rest of the things I believe