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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Male generic language
purports to include both women and men yet refers only to men.
Language Defines Men and Women Differently
Women are frequently defined by appearance or by relationships with others, whereas men are more typically defined by activities, accomplishments, or positions.
Language also reflects social views of women as passive and men as active when engaged in sexual activity.
Perhaps because men are expected to be sexual initiators, inappropriate sexual initiative by men is sometimes described in language that makes it seem acceptable.
Matrilinial
the term matriarchy means "rule by the mothers"; it generally refers to systems of ideology, social structures, and practices that are created by women and reflect the values, priorities, and view of women as group
For most of history, sexual harassment occurred frequently but was unnamed.
Because it wasn't named, sexual harassment was not visible or salient, making it difficult to recognize, think about, discipline, or stop.
If sexual harassment was discussed at all, it was described as MAKING ADVANCES, GETTING OUT OF LINE, or BEING PUSHY.
Stereotype
a generalization about an entire class of phenomena based on some knowledge of some members of the class.
For instance, women's arguments are sometimes dismissed as emotional when in fact they involve evidence and reasoning.
Polarized thinking
is conceiving of things as absolute opposites.
Something is right or wrong, good or bad, appropriate or inappropriate.
Queer performative theory
challenges polarized language for sex, gender, and sexual orientation, claiming that the polar--or binary--terms obscure the range of genders, sexes, and sexual orientations that humans express.
Women are often described in trivializing terms. Numerous terms label women as immature or juvenile or equate them with food and animals.
(baby doll, girlie, little darling).
(dish, feast for the eyes, good enough to eat, sugar, sweet thing, cookie, cupcake, hot tomato).
(catty, chick, pig, dog, cow, bitch).
Women are frequently defined by....
appearance or by relationships with others, whereas men are more typically defined by activities, accomplishments, or positions.
Even when describing women who have been raped or abused....
there are often extraneous and irrelevant descriptions of victims' appearance of dress.
Only when the term sexual harassment was coined did the general public recognize it was....
unwanted behavior that ties sexuality to security and advancement.
Self-reflection
thinking about yourself--how you name and evaluate yourself.
Androgynous people
posses qualities the culture defines as masculine and feminine instead of only those assigned to one sex.
Research shows that androgynous individuals tend to be more successful personally and professionally.

Androgynous women and men have higher self-esteem and are better adjusted personally than sex-typed individuals.
Speech community
a group of people who share norms about communication.
a speech community exists when people share understandings about goals of communication, strategies for enacting those goals, and ways of interpreting communication.
Young children almost always played in sex-segregated groups....
and girls and boys tended to play different kind of games.
In playing games, boys learn to communicate to accomplish goals, compete for and maintain status, exert control over others, get attention, and stand out.
Specifically, boys' games cultivate four communication rules.
1. Use communication to assert your ideas, opinions, and identity.
2. Use talk to achieve something, such as solving problems or developing strategies.
3. Use communication to attract and maintain others' attention.
4. Use communication to compete for the "talk stage." Make yourself stand out; take attention away from others, and get others to pay attention to you.
Girls tend to play in....
pairs or in small groups rather than large ones.
Because traditional girls' games are not highly structured by external goals and roles, players have to talk among themselves to decide what to do and what roles to play.
The lack of stipulated goals for the games is also important because....
it tends to cultivate girls' skill in interpersonal process. The games generally played by girls teach four basic rules for communication:
1. Use communication to create and maintain relationships.The process of communication, not its content, is the heart of relationships.
2. Use communication to establish egalitarian relations with others. Don't outdo, criticize , or put down others. If you have to criticize, be gentle.
3. Use communication to include others-bring them into conversations, respond to their ideas.
4. Use communication to show sensitivity to others and relationships.
The typically small size of girls' play groups fosters cooperative play....
and an open-ended process of talking to organize activity, whereas the larger groups in which boys usually play encourage competition and external rules to structure activity.
The conclusion from much research is that girls tend to engage in more cooperative play, whereas boys tend to engage in more instrumental and competitive play.
Standpoint theory's premise
that members of subordinated groups are motivated to learn the standpoint of dominant groups.
People who are socialized in feminine speech communities....
tend to regard communication as a primary way to establish and maintain relationships with others.
For feminine people, talk is the essence of relationships. Consistent with the primary goal, feminine people use language to foster connections, support, closeness, and understandings.
Establishing equality between people....
is a second important feature of feminine communication.
A third characteristic of feminine speech is....
support for others. To demonstrate support, communications often express emotions to show understanding of another's situation or feelings.
A fourth feature of feminine speech style is conversational "maintenance work"
This involves efforts to sustain conversation by inviting others to speak and by prompting them to elaborate their ideas.
Fifth quality of feminine speech is responsiveness.
Responsiveness reflects learned tendencies to care about others and to make them feel valued and included.
It affirms the other person and encourages elaboration by showing interest in what was said.
A sixth quality of feminine talk is personal, concrete style....
Typical of feminine talk are details, personal disclosures, and concrete reasoning.
These features cultivate a personal tone, and they facilitate feelings of closeness by connecting communicators' lives.
The seventh and final feature of feminine speech is tentativeness.
Verbal hedges, such as "I king of feel you may be overreacting.
In other situations, they qualify statements by saying "I'm probably not the best judge of this, but..."

Another way to keep talk provisional is to tag a question unto a statement in a way that invites another to respond.
Tentative communication....
leaves the door open for others to respond and express their opinions.
Political correctness
based on the fear that you might offend someone
-choose language that won't offend others
-sacred speech=choosing language to honor others.
Static evaluation
language that obscures growth and change overtime.
ex.parents are guilty-"she's my shy one"-may not recognize you've grown up.
ex.Brother-money-
-talks in a way in which you haven't changed.
Polarization
treating people or personalities as binary opposites.
ex.Good vs. Evil
-the world is mostly gray--people are complex
Muting
language that erases others people experiences or silences their voice.
-common mistake that someone makes when someone is grieving--may not know what that relationship is like.
ex.you just need to have a drink=muting-not caring about someones feelings
Sexist language
trying to reduce
-generic he
-man-linked words
-Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
-Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
-Women:defined independently or relationally
-Women as immature or juvenile
-Linguistic double standard
Generic he
he or him but mean all people or any person
say he or she or change sentence to a plural "they"
Man-linked words
mailman, mankind, fireman, police man.
-use inclusive term-humanity, police officer
ex."man the table"
Political correctness
based on the fear that you might offend someone
-choose language that won't offend others
-sacred speech=choosing language to honor others.
Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
includes calling a man an actor or women actress
-women=diminutive suffix-womens form reduced by the man.
Static evaluation
language that obscures growth and change overtime.
ex.parents are guilty-"she's my shy one"-may not recognize you've grown up.
ex.Brother-money-
-talks in a way in which you haven't changed.
Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
"I know pronounce you man and wife"
-his identity does not change-hers does
ex. North-"you guys"-when you mean everyone
Mrs. David Kelly-womans whole name is subdued.
-people only associate male with the male generic.
Polarization
treating people or personalities as binary opposites.
ex.Good vs. Evil
-the world is mostly gray--people are complex
Women: defined independently or relationally?
some couples hyphenate-new last name-some couples pick the "better name"
Muting
language that erases others people experiences or silences their voice.
-common mistake that someone makes when someone is grieving--may not know what that relationship is like.
ex.you just need to have a drink=muting-not caring about someones feelings
Political correctness
based on the fear that you might offend someone
-choose language that won't offend others
-sacred speech=choosing language to honor others.
Sexist language
trying to reduce
-generic he
-man-linked words
-Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
-Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
-Women:defined independently or relationally
-Women as immature or juvenile
-Linguistic double standard
Static evaluation
language that obscures growth and change overtime.
ex.parents are guilty-"she's my shy one"-may not recognize you've grown up.
ex.Brother-money-
-talks in a way in which you haven't changed.
Generic he
he or him but mean all people or any person
say he or she or change sentence to a plural "they"
Polarization
treating people or personalities as binary opposites.
ex.Good vs. Evil
-the world is mostly gray--people are complex
Man-linked words
mailman, mankind, fireman, police man.
-use inclusive term-humanity, police officer
ex."man the table"
Muting
language that erases others people experiences or silences their voice.
-common mistake that someone makes when someone is grieving--may not know what that relationship is like.
ex.you just need to have a drink=muting-not caring about someones feelings
Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
includes calling a man an actor or women actress
-women=diminutive suffix-womens form reduced by the man.
Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
"I know pronounce you man and wife"
-his identity does not change-hers does
ex. North-"you guys"-when you mean everyone
Mrs. David Kelly-womans whole name is subdued.
-people only associate male with the male generic.
Women: defined independently or relationally?
some couples hyphenate-new last name-some couples pick the "better name."
Sexist language
trying to reduce
-generic he
-man-linked words
-Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
-Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
-Women:defined independently or relationally
-Women as immature or juvenile
-Linguistic double standard
Generic he
he or him but mean all people or any person
say he or she or change sentence to a plural "they"
Man-linked words
mailman, mankind, fireman, police man.
-use inclusive term-humanity, police officer
ex."man the table"
Non-parallel language (diminutive suffixes)
includes calling a man an actor or women actress
-women=diminutive suffix-womens form reduced by the man.
Erasure of women/denial of women's existence
"I know pronounce you man and wife"
-his identity does not change-hers does
ex. North-"you guys"-when you mean everyone
Mrs. David Kelly-womans whole name is subdued.
-people only associate male with the male generic.
Women: defined independently or relationally?
some couples hyphenate-new last name-some couples pick the "better name."
Women as immature or juvenile
girl, baby doll
-gal is more appropriate
-equated with food-sweet thing, sugar
-animals-chick, bitch
Linguistic double standard
women are blamed linguistically for the some behavior men are praised for.
ex.slut for sexually active woman-stud for a man
-spinster=single woman
-bachelor=male
Racist language
persuasive
-Black as a synonym for bad
-Marked language or Spotlighting
Black as a synonym for bad
blacklist, blackball
-not allowed there
lying or dishonest=dark side
Marked language or SPOTLIGHTING (spotlighting is underlined in notes)
point our a persons race or gender that is marked to an achievement.
-"Good, black doctor."
ex.Sentor Reed-calling Obama articulate-got in trouble for it.
ex.Woman mayor, Male nurse
Homophobic language
slurs=fagot, dic, traine
-phrases that being is bad- "that's so gay", "are you accusing me of being a lesbian?"
Disability-first language
Used person first language-recommened-language that puts the person first.
ex.Amy is a person with schizophrenia, Ruth is a person that uses a wheel chair.