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22 Cards in this Set

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liberal feminism
holds that women and men are alike and equal in most respects.
cultural feminism
holds that women and men are fundamentally different and, therefore, should have different rights, roles and opportunities.
Rhetoric is persuasion
rhetorical movements are collective, persuasive efforts to challenge and change existing attitudes, laws, and policies.
First wave of women's movements in the United States
1840 to 1925, the first wave of women's movements included both liberal and cultural branches.
-the women's rights movement
-the cult of domesticity
women's rights movement
engaged in activism aimed at enlarging women's political rights.
-initial demand for voting rights for women.
-the women's rights movements became almost exclusively white in its membership and interests.
1918 until 1920, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns spearheaded a nonviolent protest for women's suffrage.
-Jailed for protesting, a number of the protesters engaged in a prolonged hunger strike, and the correctional staff force-fed the women.
--HBO film Iron Jawed Angels.
Lucretia Coffin Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
In the years that followed, Mott and Stanton worked with others to organize the first women's rights convention, the Seneca Falls Convention, which was held in New York in 1848.
"Declaration of Sentiments." Ingeniously modeled on the Declaration of Independence.
August 26, 1920
women gain the right to vote.
-19th amendment
Cult of domesticity
Their focus of good homes, families, and communities led them to participate in efforts to end slavery (abolition), ban the consumption of alcohol (temperance, or prohibition), and enact child labor laws.
These women reformers did not agree with women's rights activists that women and men are fundamentally alike and equal.
-Instead, they thought that women were more moral, nurturing, concerned about others, and committed to harmony than man. This view led them to argue that women's moral virtue would reform the political world that had been debased by immoral men.
The second wave of women's movements in the United States
-Radical feminism
-Lesbian feminism
-Separatism
-Revalorism
-Ecofeminism
-Liberal feminism
-Womanism
-Multiracial feminism
-Power feminism
Radical feminism (women's liberation movement.)
It grew out of New Left politics that protested the Vietnam War and fought for civil rights.
-New Left women did the same work as their male peers and risked the same hazards of arrest and physical assault, but New Left men treated women as subordinates, expecting them to make coffee, type new releases, do the menial work of organizing, and be ever available for sex.
most basic principle was that oppression of women is the fundamental form of oppression on which all others are modeled.
"rap" groups (consciousness-raising groups)
Radical feminists relied on these groups, or consciousness-raising groups, in which women gathered to talk informally about personal experiences with sexism and to link those personal experiences to larger social and political structures.
Radicalesbians
took the radical feminist idea of putting women first a few steps further to assert that only women who loved and lived with women were really putting women first.
Embraced lesbianism as a positive and liberated identity.
Lesbian feminists
women-identified to distinguish themselves from heterosexual women whom they see as male-identified.
-Being woman-identified fuels their commitment to ending discrimination against all women, including lesbians.
the primary goals are to live as women-identified women and to make it possible for women in committed, enduring relationships to enjoy the same property, insurance, and legal rights granted to heterosexual spouses.
Separatist feminism
build communities in which women live independently in mutual respect and harmony.
-Many, although not all, separatists are lesbian.
believe it is impossible--or a poor use of their generative energies--to attempt to reform America's patriarchal, homophobic culture.
-Instead, they choose to exit mainstream society and form communities that value women and strive to live in harmony with people, animals and the earth.
Revalorism
are feminists who focus on appreciating women's traditional activities and contributions and increasing society's appreciation of women and their contributions to society.
The broad goal of revalorists is to increase the value that society places on women and on the skills, activities, and philosophies derived from women's traditional roles.
Ecofeminism
unite the intellectual and political strength of feminist thought with ecology's concerns about our living planet.
-Ecofeminists in both Europe and America perceive a connection between efforts to control and subordinate women and the quest to dominate nature (perhaps not coincidentally called "Mother Earth").
believe that, as long as oppression is currently valued, it will be imposed on anyone and anything that cannot or does not resist. Thus, oppression is the focus, and women's oppression is best understood as a specific example of an overarching cultural ideology that esteems oppression.
Ecofeminism seeks to bring themselves and others to a....
new consciousness of humans' interdependence with all other life forms.
To do so, they speak out against values that encourage exploitation, domination, and aggression and show how these oppress women, men, children, animals, and the planet itself.
Liberal feminism
best-known second-wave feminist movement
-advocates women's equality in all spheres of life.
Identifies and challenges institutional practices, policies, and laws that exclude women from positions of influence in public and professional life.
Betty Friedan's landmark book
The Feminine Mystique
-"the problem that has no problem."
-women were not able to peruse personal development because of political reasons: American institutions, especially laws, kept women confined to domestic roles with no opportunity for fulfillment in arenas outside of home life.
Womanism
believe that women and men are alike in many ways.
-African American women who were disenchanted with white, middle-class feminism but who were committed to women's equality began to organize their own groups.
In addition to focusing on race, womanists attend to ways in which class intersects race and sex to create inequality.
Multiracial feminism
emphasizes multiple systems of domination that affect lives of women and men.
insists that race cannot be viewed in isolation.
Power feminism
1990's
-Naomi Wolf argued that it is self-defeating to focus on the social causes of inequalities and the harm that women suffer.
- Wolf advocatesPOWER FEMINISM, which contends that society doesn't oppress women, because women have the power to control what happens to them.
-Wolf urges women to "stop thinking of themselves as victims" and to capitalize on the power inherent in their majority status.
-Roiphe asserts that Take Back the Night marches, annual nonviolent protests that began in 1978 to speak out against rape, are self-defeating because "proclaiming victimhood" does not project strength.
-Power feminism appeals to some women who, like Naomi Wolf and Katie Roiphe, are white, financially comfortable, successful, and well educated.