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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Credibility and a "universal" rule of persuasion (4)
p. 76 - "Judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator [which includes institutions, as well as people]."

**"Receiver-based phenomenon"
Credibility- primary dimensions

Credibility- secondary dimensions
Dynamsism or Extroversion

Timing for credibility
Begin with your credentials!
Four ways to conceptualize credibility
1. Receiver-based phenomenon
2. Multidimensional- combo of qualities that make speaker credible.
3. Situational/Contextual Phenomenon
4. Dynamic (i.e., Nixon) p.76
Credibility as a peripheral cue
Receivers who process message via the peripheral route, however, are less likely to scrutinize message itself and more apt to focus on positive or negative cues, such as environment. p. 85
Image management for companies with credibility (PR)
1. Philanthropy
2. Image restoration after mishaps ("defensive campaigns")
p. 88
Impression Management for people
Impression Management Theory:
-Attempt to act and do the right things. "Politically correct"
-'Facework'- amp'ing up social standing
-Account for behavior p.90
**Top 10 Strategies for Enhancing Credibility (1-5)
1. Preparation
2. Cite evidence & ID sources
3. Cite own sources' qualification and expertise
4. Build Trust by honesty
5. Display good will
**Top 10 Strategies for Enhancing Credibility (6-10)
6. Fit message to audience
7. Be assertive
8. Emphasize similarity with others
9. Get audience involved
10. High-cred. introduction
Cross-sex Effect
People are more persuaded by members of the opposite sex.
Men are perceived as:
More persuasive (but not because of skill or ability), more competent, "go-getter", stereotype of the "competent male" (more capable, more leader-like). Socialized to be more independent and self-assured.
Women are perceived as:
Warm and nurturing, not allowed to be direct, assertive, or forceful, stereotype of the "communal female" - supportive, having lesser status, submissive.
Self-monitoring and persuasion
High self-monitors tend to be sensitive to social cues: "image-based" ads.
Low self-monitors: "product-based" ads.
Age and persuasion
Older = more complex strategy, more likely to see the world from the persuadee's perspective and adapt.
Younger = more susceptible to persuasion.
Logic/emotion as a false dichotomy (Aristotle)
Not as easy as logos, ethos, pathos -- intertwine. It all depends on receiver's view. EXP. We always think that the OTHER person is being emotional and we're being rational.
Involves giving the persuadee something in advance before asking for compliance. EXP. Super Market free sample day.
"Norm of reciprocity"/Bribe
Foot-in-the-door (FITD)
"Give me an inch and I'll take a mile." SMALL (not trivial) initial request leads to bigger request and higher rate of compliance. Pro-social causes; SP Theory; 1st and 2nd need not be by same requester.
Bem's Self-Perception Theory
People make self-attributions based on their own behavior. EXP. "I'm a blood donor!"
Foot-in-the-mouth (FITM)
"How are you today, ma'am?" Effective with charitable donations; operates "under the radar" because of social expectations.
Door-in-the-face (DITF)
"Dad, can I have $1000?" "No!" "Ok.. how about $500?" "Ok."
'A tough act to follow'; reciprocal concessions; no time delay btn 1st and 2nd request.
"That's Not All!"
EXP. Sweater priced at $100, marked down to $50 (*just for you*)
Acceptance of initial deal ($10,000!), then persuader changes deal ($10,000 + $539 + TAX + Cleaning, etc.)
EXP. Getting loured to Walmart for a sale on one vacuum, but they're sold out of the sale. You can get the next best thing for $20 more!
EXP. "That's 10,000 Frosties!"
-"4 easy payments of $34.56!"
Guilt and Pity Appeals
EXP. New Mexico sign with child being dragged by parents across road.

Feel less pity if it seems like a personal choice that lead to the demise.
Fear Appeals
"If you don't stop doing that, it'll fall off."
1. Danger control- find solution.
2. Fear control- panic, anger, denial, etc.
Motivational Appeals
"External inducements, often of an emotional nature, which are designed to increase an individual's drive to undertake some course of action."
Controllability Issue
We feel less guilt or pity if person can/could control his/her poverty, illness, etc. EXP. No McD lawsuits have won.
Humorous Appeals
-Attn. getting device (people prefer to be entertained)
-Form of distraction
-Can increase liking
"Ethos in action!"
Self-disparaging Humor
Good for women, not for men; Men and women can make fun of women -- men can sometimes make fun of men. Only if you have high expertise, increases liking. Decreases competence. EXP. Pres. Bush
Promise of reward -- EXP. Good grades = $$
Prevalence of threats -- EXP. Downloading music lawsuits, parenting, ultimatums.
Sex appeals as peripheral cues
Elaboration of likelihood. EXP. Hot women in car commercials - "If you buy this car, these women will like you." Unrealistic.
Brown-nosing. More competent, qualified for leadership, and motivated.
Ingratiation Types
1. Other enhancements: engaging in flattery.
2. Opinion Conformity: agreeing with target's views, ideas, statements, etc.
3. Self-presentation: bragging about self (EXP. "I'd love to go golfing this weekend, but I'm helping the homeless.")
Information Manipulation Theory
We assume that information gained from others is truthful, relevant, and clear. Hinges on amount of info, quality of info, relevance, and clarity.
Veracity Effect
We're better at knowing who is telling the truth rather than picking out lies.
Personal and technical spheres expanding, political shrinking. We know all about Paris Hilton, but cannot understand laws due to lack of political (public) sphere. Deliberative: discourse on the future.
Foss & Griffin
"Traditional" rhetoric is violent due to hierarchal nature of this country.
F & G (cont): Components of Invitational Rhetoric as alternative
Inviting audience into conversation with warmth and understanding. Both parties will further themselves, think Lover.
Baker, TARES
Social Responsibility