Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Preterite endings (AR verbs)
-AR verbs:

-aste

-amos
-asteis
-aron

Example: hablé, hablaste, habló, hablamos, habláis, hablaron
Preterite endings (IR/ER verbs)
-ER/-IR verbs:

-iste
-ió
-imos
-isteis
-ieron

Example: viví, viviste, vivió, vivimos, vivimos, vivisteis, vivieron
Present Subjunctive
first person singular present and then take off the '-o' and finally add the subjunctive endings.
Present Subjunctive (AR verbs)
Subjunctive Endings for -AR Verbs, with example

-e -emos
-es -éis
-e -en

hablar
hable hablemos
hables habléis
hable hablen
Present Subjunctive (ER/IR verbs)
Subjunctive Endings for -ER and -IR Verbs, with examples

-a -amos
-as -áis
-a -an

comer
coma comamos
comas comáis
coma coman

vivir
viva vivamos
vivas viváis
viva vivan
El imperfecto de subjuntivo/Past Subjunctive
third person plural form of the preterite minus -on.

-ra
-ras
-ra
-'ramos
-rais
-ran
Cuando

(adverbial clauses: time)
when
Después (de)que

(adverbial clauses: time)
after
En cuanto

(adverbial clauses: time)
as soon as
hasta que

(adverbial clauses: time)
until
mientras (que)

(adverbial clauses: time)
while, as long as
tan pronto como

(adverbial clauses: time)
as soon as
Future, anticipated outcomes verses present, habitual actions

(adverbial clauses: time)
1) When the actions of the main and subordinate clauses have not yet occured (that is, they represent a future action and an anticipated outcome), the subordinate clause introduced by these adverbial conjunctions uses the subjunctive
2) When the action of the subordinate clause happens all the time, the indicative is used.
Past, anticipated/unknown outcomes vrs. past, known outcomes and past, habitual actions

(adverbial clauses: time)
1) The past subjunctive is used when the action of the subordinate clause is viewed as an anticipated outcome from the point of view of the subject in the main clause, or as an unknown outcome from the point of view of the speaker.
2) The indicative (preterite or imperfect) is used when the action of the subordinate cluase represents a known outcome from the point of view of the speaker that took place subsequent to the action in the main clause.
3) Additionally, the indicative (imperfect) is used when the action of the subordinate clause refers to an action that occured several times in the past as a matter of habit.
antes de que

(adverbial clauses: time)
always followed by subjunctive because it introduces an anticipated outcome
aunque

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
although, even if
como

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
as, how
de manera que

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
in such a way that
de modo que

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
in such a way that
donde

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
where
adverbial clauses: manner and place
the sunjunctive is used with the following conjunctions to express speculation about an action or situation that is unknown to the speaker. The indicative is used to express what is actually known or has been experienced by the speaker.
Ahora que, puesto que, and ya que

(adverbial clauses: manner and place)
Always followed by the indicative since they convey the speaker's perception of reality as being already completed or inevitable.
a condición (de) que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
provided that
a fin de que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
so that
a menos que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
unless
en caso (de) que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
in case
para que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
so that, in order that
sin que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
without
adverbial clauses: subjunctive
adverbial clauses of interdependence are always followed by the subjunctive when there is a change of subject.

When there is no change of subject, the que is usually dropped and replaced by the infinitive depending on which adverbial conjunction is being used.
With para que and sin que, the que is always dropped

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
:)
With a condición (de) que, a fin de que, con tal (de) que, and en case (de) que, it is possible, though not necessary, to drop the que

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
:)
A menos que, the subjunctive is always used even when there is no change in subject

(adverbial clauses: subjunctive)
:)
Por

(cause and effect)
expresses the motive for an action or the agent performing the action. points back toward the cause.
Para

(cause and effect)
expresses the goal of an action or the recipent of the action. points forward toward the effect.
Por

(movement through verses movement toward)
Of duration or movement through space or time with no desination specified.

Pablo va por el pueblo.
Estaremos en clase por la manana.
Ana estara en Mexico por tres dias.
Para

(movement through verses movement toward)
Movement toward an objective.

Pablo va para el pueblo.
Terminenlo para manana.
Ana estara en Mexico para el tres de junio.
Por expresses in exchange for or per in unts of measurement, as well as the means by which an action is performed.
Te doy cinco dolares por el libro.
El camion solo corre 20 kilometros por hora.
Lo mandaron por avion/barco.
Para expresses in comparison with and also in the opinion of.
Para (ser) perro, es muy listo.
Para mi, la fe tiene mucha importancia.
The Process se
The use of reflexive pronouns to signal inner feelings or processes, esp. changes in physical, emotional, or mental states or changes in position (location), is very frequent in Spanish. The processses are sometimes epxressed in English with become, get, or an -en suffix: to become bright, to get bright, to brighten.
The Process se

Physical Change
acostarse: to lie down, to go to bed
calentarse: to get warm, warm up
despertarse: to wake up, awaken
dormirse: to fall asleep
enfermarse: to get sick
enfriarse: to get cold, cool down
levantarse: to rise, get up
mojarse: to get wet
secarse: to become dry, dry out
sentarse: to sit down
The Process se

Emotional or Mental Change
alegrarse (de): to get happy about
asustarse (de): to become frightened (of)
casarse (con): to get married (to)
comprometerse (a): to make a commitment (to)
divertirse: to enjoy onself
divorciarse (de): to get divorced (from)
enamorarse (de): to fall in love (with)
enfadarse (con): to get angry (with)
enojarse (con): to get angry (with)
oponerse (a): to be opposed (to)
preocuparse (por): to worry (about)
quejarse (de): to complain (about)
Subjunctive Terms and Uses:
1) Must have two clauses, a main clause and dependent clause
2) Nonexperience: when the subordinate clause describes or refers to something that is unknown to the speaker, that is, beyong his or her experience, and is thus not considered real or factual
3) Subjunctive reaction: when the main clause makes a value judgment or expresses a subjective, emotional reaction
4) Interdependence: when the main clause describes the conditions under which the even in the subordinate clause will take place.
Active voice
subject/agent + verb + object/recipient
Passive voice
subject/recipient + to be (ser) + past participle + agent

La casa fue pintada por Laura.
Los exiliados han sido ayudados por el gobierno.
La ciudadania va a ser solicitada por los inmigrantes.
The passive with ser
a form of the verb ser followed by the past particple
the agent is introduced by por
The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject
The passive se
se + third person verb + reciever (object) of the action
The passive with ser vrs. the passive se
1) Whenever the passive with ser is used, the agent of the action is either stated in the sentence or is very strongly implied.

In general, when the agent is known, spanish will use an active construction instead of the passive with ser

2) When the agent of the action is unknown or unimportant to the message, the idea should be expressed by using a passive se construction. In a passive se sentence, the speaker simply wants to commincate that an action is, was, or will be done to someone or something.
Resultant State or Condition vs. Passive Voice
Action: ser (use preterite)
-always has "por" to introduce independent clause
-La ventana fue rota por el ladrón

Condition: estar (imperfect)
-No puede abrir la ventana porque estaba rota.
"No-Fault" se Constructions/El <<se inocente>>
se + objecto indirecto + verbo 3rd persona + objecto directo (verbo y D.O. have to agree in number)
-A Elena se le perdieron los papeles.
-Se me olvidó el asunto.
-Se nos acabó la gasolina.
Uses of A
1) movement toward in a literal and figurative sense (specific point)
-Fue a la oficina.
-Les mandó el paquete a sus abuelos
-Common verbs that are followed by a: (acostumbrarse; adaptarse; aprender; asimilarse; ayudar; comenzar; empezar; ensenar; entrar; invitar; ir; llegar; salir; venir; volver)
2) By means of: occurs in a number of set phrases to indicate means of operation or locomotion, or how something was made. English often uses by or on to express the same idea.
-Está hecho a mano.
-Lo hicieron a máquina.
-Salió Ud. a pie, verdad?
3) A point in time or space, or on a scale: English "at" is expressed in Spanish by a when at expresses a particular point in time or on a scale or when a point in space means position relative to some physical object.
- Tengo clase a las ocho.
-Al principio, no quierian quedarse. Manejó a 90 millas por hora.
-Todos se sentaron a la mesa.
Uses of En
1) position on or within: En normally expresses English in, into, or on.
-Viven en una casa vieja.
-Los pusieron en la maleta.
-La carta esta en la mesa.
Expressing within:
-Lo hicimos en una hora.
-Tendremos el dinero en dos dias.
English sometimes uses the preposition at to express the idea of within an enclosure. Spanish uses en:
-Has estudiado en la universidad?
-Estaban en casa cuando occurrió el robo.
2) observation of, or participation in, an event: English distinguishes between being "at" an event as an observer and being "in" an event as a participant. Spanish does not, and uses en for both.
-Estuviste en la boda?
Estuvieron en el partido.
Common verbs that take the preposition en: consistir; convertirse; entrar; inscribirse; insistir; tardar
Future tense endings
The endings for all verbs are:

-ás

-emos
-éis
-án
Future and Conditional tense irregular stems:
Verbs with irregular future stems: (Remember that this same stem is used to form the conditional.)

decir dir- to say
haber habr- there to be [impersonal]; to have [helping verb]
hacer har- to make, do
poder podr- to be able
poner pondr- to put, place, set
querer querr- to want, love
saber sabr- to know [a fact], know how [+ infinitive]
salir saldr- to leave, go out
tener tendr- to have
valer valdr- to be worth
venir vendr- to come
Conditional tense endings
The same endings as for the imperfect of -er and -ir verbs:
-ía
-ías,
-ía
-íamos
-íais
-ían
Uses of the Future tense
1) the future describes an action that will take place sometime after a present reference point
Uses of the Conditional tense
1) The conditional describes an action that will take place sometime after a past reference point
The simple future often implies a stonger commitment or sense of purpose on the part of the speaker than the ir a + infinitive contruction.
-Iré al concierto!
-Voy a ir al conierto esta noche.
:)
Resultant State or Condition vs. Passive Voice
Action: ser (use preterite)
-always has "por" to introduce independent clause
-La ventana fue rota por el ladrón

Condition: estar (imperfect)
-No puede abrir la ventana porque estaba rota.
"No-Fault" se Constructions/El <<se inocente>>
se + objecto indirecto + verbo 3rd persona + objecto directo (verbo y D.O. have to agree in number)
-A Elena se le perdieron los papeles.
-Se me olvidó el asunto.
-Se nos acabó la gasolina.
Uses of A
1) movement toward in a literal and figurative sense (specific point)
-Fue a la oficina.
-Les mandó el paquete a sus abuelos
-Common verbs that are followed by a: (acostumbrarse; adaptarse; aprender; asimilarse; ayudar; comenzar; empezar; ensenar; entrar; invitar; ir; llegar; salir; venir; volver)
2) By means of: occurs in a number of set phrases to indicate means of operation or locomotion, or how something was made. English often uses by or on to express the same idea.
-Está hecho a mano.
-Lo hicieron a máquina.
-Salió Ud. a pie, verdad?
3) A point in time or space, or on a scale: English "at" is expressed in Spanish by a when at expresses a particular point in time or on a scale or when a point in space means position relative to some physical object.
- Tengo clase a las ocho.
-Al principio, no quierian quedarse. Manejó a 90 millas por hora.
-Todos se sentaron a la mesa.
Uses of En
1) position on or within: En normally expresses English in, into, or on.
-Viven en una casa vieja.
-Los pusieron en la maleta.
-La carta esta en la mesa.
Expressing within:
-Lo hicimos en una hora.
-Tendremos el dinero en dos dias.
English sometimes uses the preposition at to express the idea of within an enclosure. Spanish uses en:
-Has estudiado en la universidad?
-Estaban en casa cuando occurrió el robo.
2) observation of, or participation in, an event: English distinguishes between being "at" an event as an observer and being "in" an event as a participant. Spanish does not, and uses en for both.
-Estuviste en la boda?
Estuvieron en el partido.
Common verbs that take the preposition en: consistir; convertirse; entrar; inscribirse; insistir; tardar
The future expresses uncertainty as probably + present tense
-Será la 1:00.
:)
The conditional expresses uncertainty as probably + past tense.
-Serían las 4:00 am.
:)
If Clauses with Simple Tenses
1) Possible or probable situation: Indicative
IF CLAUSE:
Si + present indicative
RESULT CLAUSE:
Present indicative
Future
Command
-Si me llevas a las fiesta, te pago la gasolina.

2) Hypothetical situation: Past subjunctive
IF CLAUSE:
Si + Past subjunctive
RESULT CLAUSE:
Conditional
-Si tuviera mucho dinero, me comportaria mejor.
Comparisons of Equality
-tan + {adj or adv} + como
-tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas + noun + como
-tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas + verb + tanto como

1) For adjectives, it always agrees with the first noun memtioned. Adverbs do not agree.
2) For nouns, tanto agrees in number and gender of the noun.
3) For verbs, tanto como follows the verb.
Comparisons of Inequality
-más/menos + {adj, adv, noun} + que
-verb + más/menos + que

1)The adjective agrees with the first noun. Adverbs do not show agreement.
2) Subject pronouns are used after que.
3) When a number (including any form of the indefinite article un) follows an expression of inequality, que is replaced by de.
-Tienen menos de un dolar.
-Hay mas de 10 personas.
Grande/Pequeno
mas grande/mas pequeno (size)
mayor/ menor (importance or degree)
Viejo
mas viejo/mas nuevo (age of objects
mayor (age of people)
Joven
mas joven (appearance of people; age relative to another time)
manor (age of people)
Bueno/Malo
mas bueno/mas malo (moral behavior)
mejor/peor (quality; abilities)
Superlatives
article + noun + {mas/menos} + adjective

la profesora mas interesante

Irregular forms: mayor, menor, mejor, and peor prede rather than follow the noun
Perfect Indicative: Pluscuamperfecto
había juntado
habías juntado
había juntado
habíamos juntado
habíais juntado
habían juntado

(past participle!!)
Perfect Indicative:
Futuro Perfecto
habré
habrás
habrá
habremos
habréis
habrán
Perfect Indicative:
Condicional Perfecto
habría hablado
habrías hablado
habría hablado
habríamos hablado
habríais hablado
habrían hablado
Perfect Subjunctive:
Presente Perfecto de Subjuntivo
haya hablado
hayas hablado
haya hablado
hayamos hablado
hayáis hablado
hayan hablado
Perfect Subjunctive:
pluscuamperfecto de Subjuntivo
hubiera hablado
hubieras hablado
hubiera hablado
hubiéramos hablado hubierais hablado
hubieran hablado
Sequence of tenses: Main verb present-> subordinate verb present

BEFORE
Present --> Present Perfect Subjunctive

Espera que Diego --> ya le haya hablado.
Sequence of tenses: Main verb present-> subordinate verb present

SIMULTANEOUS
Present --> Present Subjunctive

Insiste en que Diego --> le hable todos los dias.
Sequence of tenses: Main verb present-> subordinate verb present

AFTER
Present Perfect, Future, Future Perfect, Command --> Present Subjunctive

{Ha insistido, Insistirá, Habrá insistido, Insista} en que Diego --> le hable manana.
Main verb past --> subordinate verb past

BEFORE
Imperfect --> Pluperfect Subjunctive

Era bueno que Diego --> ya le hubiera hablado.
Main verb past --> subordinate verb past

SIMULTANEOUS
Imperfect --> Imperfect Subjunctive

Era bueno que Diego --> le hablara todos los dias.
Main verb past --> subordinate verb past

AFTER
Preterite, Imperfect, Pluperfect, Condicional, Condicional Perfecto --> Imperfect Subjunctive

El lunes pidío que Diego, Pedía que Diego, El lunches había pedido que Diego, Pediría que Diego, Habría pedido que Diego --> le hablara luego.
Progressive forms: Formation
estar, seguir, ir + present participle (el gerundido)

cantando
corriendo
viviendo
cayendo
construyendo
leyendo
oyendo
Progressive forms: Placement of Object Pronouns with Progressive Forms
Object pronouns may precede the auxiliary verb or follow and be attached to the participle.
Progressive forms: Uses of the Progressive Forms
1) to indicate an action in progress at the moment of speaking
-No puede hablar con Us. porque está durmiendo
2) to describe an action that is different from what is normal or customary, whether or not it is in progress at the moment of speaking
-Este semestre estoy tomando cinco cursos.
-Estaba pasando las vacaciones en casa.
3) to add emotional impact to the narration of an ongoing story
-Que diablos estará pensando!
-Por fin estamos terminando este libro!
Progressive forms: DO NOT USE the Progressive Forms when...
NOT USED IN SPANISH:
1) to indicate a future or anticipated action; simple forms are used for this purpose
-Nos casamos en junio.
-Dijo que iban con Raul.
2) with the verbs ser, ir, venir, poder, and tener (except in very infrequent cases); use the simple forms with these verbs
-Tenemos muchos problemas ultimamente.
-Venian a la fiesta cuando ocurrio el choque.
Restrictions on the Use of the -ndo Form: Present Participle vrs. Conjugated verb
:)
Restrictions on the Use of the -ndo Form
:)