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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What part of the brain is important in spatial memory?
The hippocampus
In the Morris water maze test, what happened to the mice if they had a lesioned hippocampus?
They were unable to remember where the platform was and swam until they happened to hit it.
What cells fire APs that encode a person's location in space?
Hippocampal place cells
What impairs an animal's ability to call up specific spatial maps?
Memory loss and aging
Explain how short term synaptic memory works.
The properties of the synapse change in accordance to the stimuli that they receive (burst AP or single AP). They remember that they had a different type of stimulus.
Are synapses capable of long term memory?
Yes, this is the basis of overall learning and memory.
Describe Hebb's rule. WHat is another name for this phenomenon?
1. When one cell continuly excites another cell, over time the properties of one of the cells changes so that the efficieny of the excitation improves.
2. Long term potentiation
What is synaptic plasticity? What its function?
1. Use dependent change in the strength of a synapse.
2. Neural computation, learning and memory
What is the time scale for short term and long term plasticity?
1. Milliseconds to minutes (NMJ)
2. 30 minutes to being permanent
What is an increase in synaptic strength?
What is an decrease in synaptic strength?
What are the three stages of long term potentiation (LPT)?
1. Induction
2. Expression
3. Maintenance
Is LPT reversible and saturable?
What is believed to be the cellular correlate of learning and memory?
Where has LPT been most widely studied?
CA3-CA1 region
In the lab, what is the main way to produce LTP?
Use a low frequency pre-synaptic stimulation coupled with post-synaptic depolarization.
What is the main trigger for LTP?
The influx of calcium through the NMDA receptor is the trigger for LTP.
What NT is required for the opening of the post-synaptic NMDA receptors?
Is LTP input specific?
Yes, only certain inputs will cause LTP.
What explains the input specificity seen in LTP?
The requirement of Ca influx throught the NMDA receptor.
What does it mean to say that LTP induction is associative?
Even though LTP is input specific, the changes in the synapses as a result of LTP can make it easier for other stimuli to cause LTP to occur.
What are three pre-synaptic changes that could take place that would explain LTP expression?
1. Increased release probability of vesicles
2. Increased number of release sites
3. Increased number of vesicles released
What are three post-synaptic changes that could take place that would explain LTP expression?
1. Increased glutamate receptor sensitivity
2. Increased number of functional receptors
3. Increased number of synapses
What is a silent synapse?
A synapse that is normally non-functional but can be activated and participate in signalling.
Is a silent synapse pre-synaptic or post-synaptic?
They can be both. Pre-synaptic would be mute while a post-synaptic silent synapse is deaf.
What could activate silent synapses?
LTP expression
What type of receptors do silent synapses have?
They only have NMDA receptors and no AMPA receptors.
What are the two predominant types of ligand gated glutamate receptors?
1. AMPA - resting membrane potential
2. NMDA - active when depolarized
What happens to a silent synapse when LTP occurs?
AMPA receptors are inserted into the post-synaptic membrane.
What are the two ways post-synaptic calcium can cause LTP expression?
1. Ca activates CaMKII and causes the insertion of AMPA receptors.
2. CaMKII phosphorylates already present AMPA receptors and makes them more active
What is the duartion of synaptic strength referred to as?
Maintenance Phase of LTP
Besides the activation of silent synapses and the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors, what causes the long term expression of LTP?
The rewiring of the hippocampus.
What does CREB do?
It is cyclic-AMP binding element that is a transcription factor. It activates transcription of essential LTP proteins such as CaMKII.
How does the mossy fiber LTP work? What is the actual LTP expression method?
1. It is a non-NMDA receptor LTP pathway. It involves the influx post-synaptic Ca through a voltage-gate.
2. Increased probability of pre-synaptic vesicle release.
LTD is basically the opposite of what?
What type of stimulus induces LTD?
A longer lower frequency stimulation.
What type of LTD is present in the hippocampus?
NMDA receptor mediated
LTD in the hippocampus and cortex can be stimulated how (4)?
1. Dumping glutamate directly onto a brain slice
2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor
3. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation
4. Adernergic receptor activation
How is LTD activated in the striatum?
Cannabanoid receptor