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25 Cards in this Set

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a situation in which only a portion of a moving stimulus can be seen, as when the stimulus is viewed through a narrow space. This results in misleading information about the direction in which the stimulus is moving.
aperture problem
an illusion of movement that occurs between two objects separated in space when the objects are flashed rapidly on and off, one after another, separated by a brief time interval
apparent movement
motion produced by biological organisms.
biological motion
a term used to describe the degree of correlation between the direction of moving objects
coherence
a structure hypothesized by the corollary discharge theory of movement perception. The corollary discharge signal and the sensory movement signal meet here to determine whether movement will be perceived.
comparator
a copy of the signal sent from the motor area of the brain to the eye muscles
corollary discharge signal (CDS)
According to this theory of motion perception, a corollary discharge signal is sent to a structure called the comparator. At the comparator, information in the corollary discharge is compared to the sensory movement signal. If the corollary discharge signal and the sensory movement signal do not cancel each other, movement is perceived.
corollary discharge theory
Information for movement that occurs when all elements in a scene move. This indicates that the observer is moving and not the scene.
global optic flow
In corollary discharge theory, the signal that occurs when an image stimulates the receptors by moving across them.
image movement signal (IMS)
The illusory movement of one object that is caused by the movement of another object that is nearby.
induced movement
Occurs when a stimulus's three-dimensional structure becomes apparent from viewing a two-dimensional image of a stimulus as it rotates.
kinetic depth effect
Occurs when one object moves relative to the environment, so that the stationary background is covered and uncovered by the moving object. This indicates that the object is moving relative to the environment.
local disturbance in the optic array
A procedure in which a small electrode is inserted into the cortex and an electrical current is passed through the electrode that activates the neurons near the electrode. This procedure has been used to determine how activating specific groups of neurons affects perception.
microstimulation
An effect of brain damage in which the ability to perceive motion is disrupted.
motion agnosia
In corollary discharge theory, the signal that is sent to the eye muscles when the observer moves or tries to move his or her eyes.
motor signal (MS)
An illusion that occurs after a person views a moving stimulus and then sees movement in the opposite direction when viewing a stationary stimulus, e.g. the waterfall illusion.
movement aftereffect
The assumption that a moving object will cover and uncover the background and that when the background is covered, it still exists. Thus, when a large object is occluded by a smaller one, we see the larger one as continuing to exist behind the occluder.
occlusion heuristic
The structured pattern of light created by the presence of objects, surfaces, and textures in the environment.
optic array
A biological motion stimulus created by placing lights on a number of places on a person's body and having an observer view the moving-light stimulus that results as the person moves in the dark.
point-light walker
The physical movement of a stimulus.
real movement
Neuron in the monkey's cortex that responds when movement of an image across the retina is caused by movement of a stimulus, but does not respond when movement across the retina is caused by the eyes.
real-movement neuron
Occurs when an observer views two pictures depicting the same motion, one after another, and is asked to indicate whether the second picture is the same as or different from the first picture. _____ occurs when the second picture depicts the action LATER IN TIME but is identified by the observer as being identical to the first picture.
representational momentum
The principle that apparent movement occurs along the shortest path between two stimuli when they are flashed on and off with the appropriate timing.
shortest-path constraint
A situation in which movement of a stimlus creates the perception of an object that was not perceived when the stimulus was stationary.
structure-from-motion
An aftereffect of movement that occurs after viewing a stimulus moving in one direction, such as a waterfall. Viewing the waterfall creates other objects to appear to move in the opposite direction.
waterfall illusion