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42 Cards in this Set

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color without hue. i.e. white, black, and all the grays between these two extremes
achromatic color
a person who needs to mix a minimum of three wavelengths to match any other wavelength in the spectrum but mixes these wavelengths in different proportions from a trichromat.
anamolous trichromat
a loss of color vision caused by damage to the cortex
cerebral achromatopsia
prolonged exposore to light in a specific part of the visible spectrum, which adapts receptors that fire to these wavelengths by selectively bleaching a specific visual pigment. This has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for color constancy.
chromatic adaptation
color with hue, such as blue, yellow, red, and green
chromatic color
a condition in which a person perceives no chromatic color. This can be caused by absent or malfunctioning cone receptors or by cortical damage.
color-blindness
the effect in which the perception of an object's hue remains constant even when the wavelength distribution of the illumination is changed
color constancy
people with this condition see fewer colors than people with normal color vision and need to mix fewer wavelengths to match any other wavelength in the spectrum
color deficiency
a procedure in which observers are asked to match the color in one field by mixing two or more lights in another field
color-matching experiment
the creation of colors that occurs when lights of different colors are superimposed
additive color mixture
the creation of colors that occurs when paints of different colors are mixed together
subtractive color mixture
low saturation in chromatic colors as would occur when white is added to a color
desaturated
a form of red-green color dichromatism caused by a lack of the middle-wavelength cone pigment
deuteranopia
a person who has a form of color deficiency, they can match any wavelength in the spectrum by mixing two other wavelengths. i.e. deuteranopes, protanopes, and tritanopes
dichromat
the experience of a chromatic color such as red, green, yellow, or blue or combinations of these colors
hue
the border between two areas created by different light intensities in the two areas
illumination edge
a display of colored dots used to test for the presence of color deficiency.
Ishihara plate
perception of reflectance. Usually objects with high reflectance are perceived as white and objects with low reflectance are perceived as gray or black.
lightness
the constancy of our perception of an object's lightness under different intensities of illumination
lightness constancy
the idea that an object's characteristic color influences our perception of that object's color
memory color
the situation in which two physically different stimuli are perceptually identical. In vision, this refers to two lights with different wavelength distributions that are perceived as having the same color.
metamerism
two lights that have different wavelength distributions but are perceptually identical
metamers
a person who is completely color-blind and therefore sees everything as black, white, or shades of gray. They can match any wavelength in the spectrum by adjusting the intensity of any other wavelength. They generally have only one type of functioning receptors, usually rods.
monochromat
the wavelength at which a dichromat perceives gray
neutral point
a neuron that has an excitatory response to wavelengths in one part of the spectrum and an inhibitory response to wavelengths in the other part of the spectrum
opponent neuron
a theory originally proposed by Hering, which claimed that our perception of color is determined by the activity of two opponent mechanisms: a blue-yellow mechanism and a red-green mechanism. The responses to the two colors in each mechanism oppose each other, one being an excitatory response and the other an inhibitory response. In addition, this theory also includes a black-white mechanism, which is concerned with the perception of brightness.
opponent-process theory of color vision
the fuzzy border at the edge of a shadow
penumbra
a form of red-green dichromatism caused by a lack of the long-wavelength cone pigment
protanopia
a principle stating that two areas that reflect different amounts of light will look the same if the ratios of their intensities to the intensities of their surroundings are the same
ratio principle
the percentage of light reflected from a surface
reflectance
a plot showing the percentage of light reflected from an object versus wavelength
reflectance curve
an edge between two areas where the reflectance of two surfaces changes
reflectance edge
the relative amount of whiteness in a chromatic color. the less whiteness a color contains, the more _____ it is.
saturation
when an object reflects some wavelengths of the spectrum more than others
selective reflection
when some wavelengths pass through visually transparent objects or substances and others do not.
selective transmission
the effect that occurs when surrounding one color with another changes the appearance of the surrounded color
simultaneous contrast
a person with normal color vision. They can match any wavelength in the spectrum by mixing three other wavelengths in various proportions
trichromat
a theory proposing that our perception of color is determined by the ratio of activity in three receptor mechanisms with different spectral sensitivities
trichromatic theory of color vision
a form of dichromatism thought to be caused by a lack of the short-wavelength cone pigment
tritanopia
a person who has dichromatic vision in one eye and trichromatic vision in the other eye.
unilateral dichromat
absorption of a photon by a visual pigment molecule causes the same effect no matter what the wavelength
principle of univariance
another name for the trichromatic theory of color vision
Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision