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89 Cards in this Set

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Seven factors of Viticulture are:
1. Grape Varieties
2. Soil Types
3. Vineyard pests and diseases
4. climate
5. annual weather conditions
6. Proximity of water
7. Topygraphical effects
A stereotypical ideal vineyard site for wine grapes (in the Northern hemisphere) is
a hillside in a dry climate with a
-southern exposure (to maximize the sun that falls on the grapes)
-good drainage (to reduce unneccesary water uptake into the grapes)
-good pruning (to force the vine to put all its energy into the fruit rather than foliage).
Three important soil conditions:
-drainage
-heat retention
-mineral richness vs. organic richness
refers to all of the elements in nature that influence the character of the fruit: soil, subsoil, microclimate, mesoclimate, drainage, elevation, sun exposure, and prevailing winds.
Terroir
A Burgundian term referring to a specifically defined vineyard area, usually an individual field.
Climat
A grape variety normally takes _______days to ripen.
120
a North American insect that kills the vine by feeding on the root
Phylloxera
Phylloxera caused
the failure of early plantings of European grapes in the Eastern United States and, beginning about 1860, spread around the world
caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea.
Botrytis (or Bunch Rot)
The bacterium blocks the xylem, the water- and nutrient-conducting vessels of plants.

what disease?
Pierce's Disease
The typical symptom of what disease is leaves on the plant to begin to dry or to scorch.
Pierce's Disease
__________is very prone to odium and it seems that this site, probably due to it's coolness is particularly susceptible.

What grape
Chardonnay
Odium (powdery mildew) can be treated with ___________.
Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux mixture is made of what
copper sulfate
The primary objective of vine (canopy) management is to
create a balance between the vine’s vegetative growth and its fruit development.
Excessive cropping inhibits the ripening process, producing grapes with
insufficient flavor concentration.
As a general rule, the best wines are produced from vineyards yielding_______tons per acre or less
five
red colour of juice is bestowed by the
skin being left in contact with the juice during fermentation
Grappa is a dry colorless brandy, distilled from fermented _______
grape pomace
the pulpy residue of grapes, stems and seeds that were pressed for the winemaking process.
grape pomace
Gooseberry, asparagus, acidic.

white grape
sauvignon blanc
Honey, fig, orange, lime.

white grape
semillon
Butter, melon, apple, pineapple, vanilla (if oaked, i.e. vinified in new oak aging barrels)

white grape
Chardonnay
Wet wood, beeswax, honey, apple, almond.

white grape
Chenin Blanc
Citrus fruits, petrol, honey.

white grape
Riesling
Rose petals, lychee, spice.

white grape
Gewürztraminer
Peach, pear, nutmeg, apricot.

white grape
Viognier
Almond, honeysuckle, marzipan.

white grape
Marsanne
Banana, bubble-gum, red fruits.

red grape
Gamay
Raspberry, cherry, violets, "farmyard" (with age).

red grape
Pinot Noir
Blueberry, black cherry, mixed spices, mint.

red grape
Zinfandel
Tobacco, pepper, blackberry, plum.

red grape
Shiraz
Smoky, pepper, raspberry.

red grape
Grenache
Vanilla, strawberry, tobacco.

red grape
Tempranillo
Herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy.

red grape
Sangiovese
Leather, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice, tar and roses.

red grape
Nebbiolo
Black cherry, plums, pepper, coffee.

red grape
merlot
Tobacco, raspberry, new-mown grass.

red grape
Cabernet Franc
Blackcurrants, chocolate, mint, tobacco.

red grape
Cabernet Sauvignon
Thyme, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, violet, blackberry.

red grape
Mourvèdre
The process of making wine. Usually the term is used loosely, to cover every stage of winemaking from receiving fruit at the winery through to fermentation and beyond.
vinification
aged with yeast still in barrel
sur lie
stirring of the dead yeasts
batonage
the yeast to impart flavor and characteristics to the wine
lees
Removal of fine particles
* Can be done through the addition of egg whites
* Also through centrifuge, or clay
fining
Produces a lighter, easier drinking wine
* Unbroken red grapes placed into container with Carbon Dioxide
* 15% on bottom ferment naturally
* Remaining grapes have fermentation inside their skins
* Lack of oxygen converts metabolism to convert sugars (no yeast)
* No physical movement of grapes for tannin or color extraction
Carbonic Maceration
Red wines grow ______ as they age.
paler
Older red may display a ___________ hue around the edges.
brickish (should not be present in younger red wines)
When you swirl wine in a glass and sniff it, the volatile essences of the wine are carried by thousands of nerve endings in your nasal cavity to the ____________ in your brain.
olfactory bulb
when you sip and swallow wine, the essences of the wine are carried via the _____________in the back of the mouth
retronatal passage
wine consists of over _____different chemical compounds
300
_________aromatics in wine

how many
200-800
_______of all available odors reach receptors during normal breathing,
20%
only _____ of odors actually gets through the nose to reach the ‘sensory patch’
2%
to smell anything, it must be in a ___________to reach our receptor cells, dissolved in the mucous lining and stimulate nerve endings
gaseous state
humans than have the ability to detect____________different odors
10,000
Professor Kikunae Ikeda of Tokyo Imperial University was thinking about the taste of food: "There is a taste which is common to asparagus, tomatoes, cheese and meat but which is not one of the four well-known tastes of sweet, sour, bitter and salty," and he named it
"umami.".
The “body’ of a wine – the sense of its weight on your palate – is a function primarily of its
alcohol content (the higher the alcohol, the weightier the wine).
(TCA) Trichloroanisole is known as
corked wine
Natural cork fails on average ___times per 100 bottles
3
Wine makers lose apprx. _________ per year from bad corks
$100 million
Bordeaux is the largest wine region in the world
Bordeaux
Red Bordeaux, which is traditionally known as _______ in the United Kingdom
claret
Claret is generally made from what grapes?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot
The ecological foundation of Bordeaux is

limestone
limestone
The first growths are
· Château Lafite-Rothschild
· Château Margaux
· Château Latour
· Château Haut-Brion
· Château Mouton-Rothschild
Sauternes is a subregion of Graves known for its
intensely sweet, white, dessert wines such as Château d'Yquem.
Under the French laws governing AOC classified wines, farmers are not allowed to ______________, whereas in the new wine producing countries, this is entirely legal.
irrigate their land
On a Global scale, the _________ is the biggest importer of wine in the world
United States
In the Bordeaux region there is the __________ or the Médoc and Graves with its capital city of Bordeaux
Left Bank
In the Bordeaux region there is the ___________or the Pomerol and St-Émilion, that surrounds the smaller port city of Libourne
Right (east) Bank
Wines from St-Estèphe typically mature_________than its southern counterparts
more slowly
St-Estephe's soil is
heavy and rich with clay, leading to wines with firm tannins ("The soldiers") and high acidity
Home to three premier cru (first growth) chateaux, _________is a leader in quality Bordeaux.
Pauillac
A good descriptor of St-Julien wines is
balance.
words that help describe the mysteries of Margaux
soft, elegant
Margaux lays a few marshlands south of
St-Julien.
Reds and whites from Pessac-Léognan have the specific tastes of the ____________where it’s grown.
gravelly soil
what helps foster the necessary mold that lead to the unfortified, but lusciously sweet wines of Sauternes & Barsac
The rains, the mists, the humidity and the climate
Sauternes & Barsac primary grape and why?
Semillion- it takes well to bortrytis

(blend in Sauv. Blanc)
the palate the wines of Sauternes & Barsac are
luscious and sweet, yet with the balanced acidity to keep them from being too cloying or candied.
Barsac wines are a little ________in body and _________ intense than Sauternes.
lighter , less
The two white grapes, ________________, are the primary components of Graves’ white wines
Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon
St-Émilion is situated on the ____________of Bordeaux.
right bank
St-Émilion's grapes of choice are
Merlot and Cabernet Franc
St.Émilion produces the most wine on the _________ of Bordeaux
right bank

(merlot)
The soils of St. Emilion
differ greatly, from gravel to limestone to sand.
Soils of Pomerol are primarily
gravel based, intermittent with a clay subsoil which is a factor in the rich flavors of the wines.
______________has a half percentage higher alcohol minimum than just Bordeaux.
Bordeaux Superior