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20 Cards in this Set

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Speed of sound
340 m/s
formula for db
db=20log(p/p0)
p=intensity
po=reference pressure (.0002 dyne/cm2)- mi. pressure that cna be detected at frequency where hearing is most sensitive
Fourier analysis
dividing sounds into sine waves
cochlear partition
-basilar membrane, tectorial membrane, organ of corti
Ear detecting frequency:
1. place code
2. temporal coding (phase locking)
volley principle
multiple neurons can provide a temporal code for frequency-doesn't fire every period
Threshold tuning
-measures response of fibers to different frequencies at the lowest intensity that will give a response
Characteristic frequency
-frequency to which a auditory nerve is most sensitive
two-tone suppresion
Decrease in firing of a nerve because a second tone is presented at the same time as the first
isointensity curve
response of fiber to different frequencies and intensities
rate saturation
-fiber is firing the fastest it can at a certain intensity, the fiber fires the same no matter the frequency
Auditory brain structures
-cochlear nucleus
-superior olive
-inferior colliculus
-medial geniculate nucleus
-cerebral cortex
tonotic organization
Organization of neurons according to frequencies in structures
-A1 to belt area to parabelt area
Temporal integration
longer sounds are percieved to be louder
Critical bandwidth
size of noise band; frequency is so high that it does not matter how intense the sound it

Adding more energy to the noise stops affecting dectability of test tone
conductive hearing loss
problems with bones in middle ear
otitis media
inflammation in middle ear
otosclerosis
abnormal growth of middle ear bones
sensorineural hearing loss
defects in cochlea/auditory nerve
ototoxic
produce adverse effects on organs or nerves invovled in hearing/balance.