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51 Cards in this Set

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soil
Loose rock material that covers much of the Earth's land surface.
dirt
Geologists
Scientists who study Earth materials such as soil.
Topsoil
Mature surface soil that has an organic (living) layer in which plants have their roots.
natural resource
soil is a natural resource of the world. Why?
What % of topsoil in the world is lost to erosion?
7%
Farmers are adding more and more __________ to the topsoil to makeup for the loss of plant nutrients.
fertilizers
____________ is any useful material that comes from the Earth. (trees, coal, air, water)
natural resource
The greatest cause of soil loss is __________ by running water.
erosion
____________ is the wise use (not wasting) of natural resources.
Conservation
There are 5 things people can do in order to conserve our soil:
1. leave plants alone
2. contour plowing
3. strip cropping
4. dam building
5. terracing
___________ is a mixture of weathered rocks and ____________.
Topsoil; humus
_________ is decayed (dead) plant and animal matter, which provides the nutrients to the soil.
Topsoil
_________ lies under the topsoil and is largely made of _______ ____________.
Subsoil; clay particles
_________________ _________ is the last layer of soil.
Weathered rock
What property of flint makes it so very useful?
perfect for tools
Explain what is "mineral soup," and tell where I would find it?
Magma is a mineral soup.
You would find it in the inner core.
According to the video, what are minerals?
Minerals are content recycled and turns into solid.
Mt. Rushmore is made from this rock:
granite
renewable resource
A resource that can be replaced, like trees.
nonrenewable resource
A natural resource that can't be replaced, such as metallic ores.
rock
A solid material made up of one or more minerals.
ore
A rock that can be mined for the minerals is contains.
mineral
A natural solid that has a definite chemical makeup, found in Earth's crust.
terracing
the building of steplike ridges to prevent water runoff.
gullies
miniature river valleys.
Contour plowing and terracing are:
soil conservation practices.
Coal and crude oil are __________ resources or fossil fuels.
nonrenewable
Flower roots and tree roots:
hold soil in place.
If your job were to conserve Earth's soil, what would you say to farmers to convince them that contour plowing, strip cropping, and terracing help prevent soil erosion?
Following the shape of the land, like contour plowing, helps slow down erosion by rainwater. Planting a cover crop helps absorb rainwater and keeps soil in place. Constructing steplike ridges, or terraces, helps reduce runoff.
Choose one:

Wind-blown sand can (erode, harden) rock surfaces.
harden
Choose one:

(Plants, Valleys) can act as windbreaks, which slow down the wind.
Plants
Choose one:

A glacier moves rock and soil like a (wheelbarrow, bulldozer).
bulldozer
Choose one:

Where winds blow steadily in the same direction, (dunes, glaciers) move.
glaciers
Moraines are deposited as glaciers (move, melt).
move
Order the steps for the formation of a sand dune (they are not in right order):
___ The wind slows down when it striks an object.
___ Wind removes loose sand and silt from an area.
___ Over time a sand dune forms.
___ Wind deposits sediment in another area.
___ The process begins all over again.
2
1
4
3
5
______ is the main contributor to the cause of erosion, where as wind is a contributor to ____________.
Water; weathering
In dry regions, sand helps create teh ______ _______.
sand dunes
_______ and snow helps create _________ in the polar regions.
Ice; glaciers
Fossils, which tell us about the past, can be found in rocks. _______ ________ tell us the direction or movement of a glacier and gives an idea of its _____.
Glacier grooves; size
___________ such as trees, shrubs, fences, and grass help reduce or prevent wind erosion.
Windbreaks
The speed of a glacier are affected by 3 factors, which are weight of the glacier, the terrain or landscape that a glacier is moving across, and the temperature of a glacier. But the main force that moves glaciers is ________.
gravity
fossil fuels
natural gas, coal, petroleum (also called crude oil) are fuels made from the remains of once-living things.
peat
A fossil fuel that comes from the remains of ancient swamp plants.
weathering
the process by which rock is broken into smaller pieces.
river system
A river and the waterways that drain into it.
sediments
The materials carried by moving water.
delta
A flat plain that is formed from sediments from when a river empties into an ocean.
headland
A natural piece of land that extends out into the water.
bay
A body of water that is partly enclosed by land but has an opening, called a mouth, connecting the water to the ocean.
sand dunes
Piles of sand that are deposited in one place.
moraine
Rock materials carried by glaciers.