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19 Cards in this Set

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For muscle contraction and myocardial contraction to occur___,___,___, and___ must move across the cell membrane.
sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride
During muscle contraction___ moves out of the cell and ___ moves in. ___ plays a role in the transportion of these cations, but the exact mechanism is still unknown.
sodium
potassium
ATP
Sodium-potassium pump
the movement of sodium and potassiom across the cellular membrane
Sarcoplasmic reticulium is responsible to get___ into and out of the cell.
Calcium
The___ of the heart and skeletal muscle activley transport calcuim across the cellular membrane.
sarcoplasmic reticulium
All cells in the body are electrically charged. ___ the cell is more negatively charged than___ the cell.
inside
outside
Resting-membrane potential
the difference in the electrical charge between inside the cell and outside the cell
The cell membrane is more permeable to___. That is why it goes in.
potassium
The resting membrane potential is___ millivolts.
-70 to -85
Action potential
when a strong stimulus hits the cell membrane (and exceeds the resting membrane potential) this causes the voltage regulatory channels to open
During action potential when the voltage regulatory channels open it causes the cell membrane to be more permeable to___.
sodium
During action potential is when the___ rushes out and the ___ rushes in. This makes the inside of the cell more___.
potassium
sodium
positive
Depolorization
sodium moves into the cell and potassium out causing the -70 to -85 millivolts to become more positive and approach zero millivolts.
Threshold potential
after the cell membrane has been stimulated and there has been a change of -15 to -20 millivolts, then the cell no longer requires a stimulus to complete the depolorization process
Threshold potential is the:
point of no return
Repolarization
after the heart or skeletal muscle contracts, then the voltage regulatory channels close, and the cellular membrane becomes negative again returning to the resting membrane potential by means of the Na+/K+ pump
Absolute refractory period
during the action potential phase and repolarization phase, the cell cannot respond to and other stimuli until it hits -60 millivolts
Relative refractory period
if a very stong stimulus hits the cellular membrane after the -60 millivolts has been obtained, then a cardiac or skeletal muscle cell could contract.
The relative refractory period is a:
very vulnerable period and could potentially result in a lethel arrhythmia.