Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A process that occurs when a minority racial, ethnic or cultural group becomes virtually indistinguishable, culturally, from the dominant group in a society.
cultural pluralism:
A diversity of cultural traditions and outlooks.
A collectively-defined meaning about characteristics that determine people's membership in communities that are united by culture, and usually also by kinship -- communities that are important to who we are as individuals, and to which we owe deep and enduring allegiance.
ethnic group:
A collectivity (group) that gives people identity (and thus meaning), and a sense of belonging, through our identification with it.
A view of ethnicity, which sees it as less fundamental to "the way we are" than the that which characterizes the primordialist position. Here, ethnicity is seen as a more superficial basis for identity, although nevertheless meaningful -- one that can often be used by leaders who want to rally support for some cause.
A movement that is oriented toward highlighting ethnic diversity and emphasizing its benefits for individuals and society.
The view that sentiments and ties which arise from ethnic identity are so deep-seated that they seem somehow "natural," rather than having come about because of social interaction.
A concept that focuses particularly on the genetically inherited component of ethnicity. Most sociologists and biologists dispute the idea that race is a useful concept.
A position that we occupy in the social system.
Oversimplified and often inaccurate ideas about entire categories of people -- ideas that are often applied to individuals that are believed to fit into those categories.
Established, traditional religious organizations that tend to support the prevailing features of their society.
Religious organizations that set themselves more decisively apart from the prevailing order than do sects. They are often either short-lived or transform themselves into sects.
Religious organizations in in the middle of the Church-sect continuum.
religious practices / religion:
Institutions and behaviors that relate individuals to ideas about ultimate meaning and the sacred. Religion proposes a separate level of understanding from that which is knowable through the limitations of human reason.
Religious organizations that are more detached from the prevailing political system, and sometimes are in conflict with it.
secular government:
One whose overarching principles are not derived from a particular religious tradition.
A process through which the awe-inspiring potential of religious belief and practice recede from prominence in various dimensions of life.
A political system in which the government is self-consciously ruled through an agreed-to conception of divine guidance.
adversarial system:
A system that limits the state's power in legal proceedings by attempting to create a "level playing" field in which the prosecution and the defense will have an equal opportunity to present their positions to an impartial jury.
appellate courts:
Courts that decide questions of law. Appellate courts inquire into the appropriateness of procedures and evidence that are used in specific trials.
An offense against the state.
crime control model:
This approach is especially concerned with apprehending and punishing those who have committed crimes.
doctrine of natural law:
The idea that that some principles are so universally valid that they can be applied to all societies and to all social strata.
deviance, deviant:
When people violate social norms to which others attach a significant degree of importance, their behavior is often viewed as being deviant.
due process model:
This approach aims to protect innocent people from the potentially coercive power of the government, even if it means that some guilty people go free because of procedural safeguards that restrict the government's authority.
inquisitorial system:
A system in which the emphasis is more directed toward fact-finding and less than toward balancing the interests of the state and the defendant, as compared with an adversarial system.
the legal order:
A system of rules in which adherence to the law takes precedence over obedience to those who hold power.
social control theory of deviance:
Suggests that conformity to group norms results from strong social bonds which tie individuals to groups and promote conformity.
social solidarity:
Factors that create and sustain bonds between individuals and social groups.
An offense against another person.
trial courts:
Courts that decide questions of fact. Defendants are judged guilty or not guilty in trial courts.
white-collar crime:
"Crimes committed by persons of high social position in the course of their occupations" (Sutherland and Cressey, 1978).
charter schools:
Schools that, while public, are administered more autonomously than most publicly supported schools. Instead of being run by local school officials, they are under the control of teachers, parents, and local groups that want to operate them according to different principles from those that characterize most other schools.
outcome-based education:
An approach that emphasized standardized measurement procedures as a way of improving the quality of schooling.
"traditional" and "progressive" teaching approaches:
"Traditional" approaches emphasize communicating particular kinds of knowledge and acquiring skills that are agreed upon by educators as being important.
voucher programs:
Approaches that offer another alternative aimed at encouraging competition among educational organization, with the aim of improving quality in the process. With vouchers, parents can send their children to private schools, if they would like, and pay most or all of the tuition cost with vouchers that allow tax dollars to support children's education -- at the type of school parents would like for their children to attend.
agenda-setting power of the media:
The media's role in focusing our thinking on particular subjects -- subjects that are highlighted in the media.
The process of characterizing events and situations in a particular way through media presentation.
typographic mind; visual culture:
To Postman, a "typographic mind" has been shaped by reading the printed word -- activity that he sees as promoting the "coherent, orderly arrangement of facts and ideas." A visual culture focuses more on images, at the expense of words.