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83 Cards in this Set

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Culture
All the human beings learn to produce, to know, to do, to use, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong.
Culture shock
The reaction people may have when encountering cultural traditions different from their own.
Cultural Lag
A situation that develops when new patterns of behavior conflict with traditional values.
Cultural Relativism
The position that scientists doing cross-cultural research should view and analyze behavior.
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to judge others cultures in terms of one's own customs and values.
Material Culture
All the things human beings make and use, from small hand held tools to sky scrapers.
Non-material Culture
The totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules, for appropriate behavior that specifies how a people should interact and how they may solve their problems.
Norms
Specific rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared within a culture to prescribe limits of accetable behavior.
Real Norms
Norms that allow for differences in individual behavior. Real norms specify how people actually behave, not how they should behave under ideal circumstances.
Ideal Norms
Expectations of what people should do under perfect conditions, The norm that marriage will last "until death do us part" is an ideal norm in american society.
Folkways
Norms that permit a rather wide degree of individual interpretation as long as certain limits are not overstepped. They change with time and vary from culture to culture.
Mores
Strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central value of the culture.
Laws
Formal rules adopted by a society's politcial authority.
Taboo
A sacred prohibtion against touching, looking at, or mentioning certain objects, acts, or people.
Social Identity
The statuses that define an individual. It is determined by how others see us.
Socialization
The long and complicated process of social interactions through which a child learns the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a memeber of society.
Resocialization
An important aspect of adult socilization that invloves being exposed to ideas or values that conflict with what was learned in childhood
Personality
The patterns of behavior and ways of thinking and feelings that are distinctive for each individual.
Conditioning
The molding of behaviors through repeated excericises that link a desired reaction with a specific object or event
Concept of Self
Awareness of the exsistence, appearance, and boundaries of ones own body. Knowledge of ones own history. Ability to refer to yourself using language and other symbols. Knowledge of ones needs and skills. The ability to take a step back and look and look at self as others do, evaluate the impression given off, and understand the feelings and attitudes that one generates in others.
Cooleys Looking Glass Self
The process through which we develop our sense of self. We imagine how our actions appear to others, imagine how others judge these actions, and make a self judgement based on the presumed judgements of others.
Generalized Others
The view points, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole or of a general community of people that we are aware of and who are important to us.
ID
The drives and instincts every human inherits, but which remain unconcious.
Ego
Trys to mediate the internal conflict between the id and super ego and to find socially acceptable ways for the id's drives to be expressed.
Super Ego
Societys norms and moral values as learned primarily from our parents.
Socializing Agents
1. Family
2. School
3. Peer groups
4. Mass media
Who has the greatest impact at what stages of our lives
The Peer group has the most impact on us in socialization. This occurs during early childhood until late adulthood
Statuses
Socially defined postitions that people occupy
Roles
The culturally defined rules for proper behavior that are associated with every status.
Status v. Roles
Roles are the set of behaviors that belong to a status. A status is basically a part in a play and roles are the way you need to act to play the part
Achieved Status
Occupied as a result of the individuals actions.
Ascribed Status
Conferreed on us by right of birth or other significant factors not controlled by our own actions or decisoins; people occupy them regardless of their intentions.
Social Groups
A number of people who have a common indentity, some feelings of unity, and ceratin common goal and shared norms.
Primary Groups
Interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another intimately , and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles.
Secondary Groups
Characterized by much less initmacy among its members. It usually has specific goals, is formally organized, and is impersonal.
Techniques of neutralization
!. Denial of responsiblity
2. Denying the injury
3. Denial of the victim
4. Condemnation of the authorities
5. Appealing to higher principles or authorities.
pg.163
Endomorphic
Soft and round (Relaxed. Creatures of comfort)
Ectomorphic
Thin and linear. (inhibitive, secretive, and restrained.)
Mesomorphic
Ruggedly Muscualr. (Assertive, action oriented, and uncaring of other peoples feelings.)
Functions of Deviance
1. Causes the groups members to close ranks
2. Promotes the group to organize to limit future deviant acts.
3. Helps clarify for the group what it really does believe in.
4. Teaches normal behavior by providing examples of rule violation
5. In some situations tolerance of deviant behavior acts as a safety valve and actually prevents more serious instances of non conformity.
Dysfunctions of Deviance
1. It makes life unpredictable and people arent sure what to expect.
2. Creates confusion about norms and values of a society
3. Undermines trust.
4. Diverts valuable resources
Deviance
Behavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in which it occurs.
External means of control
Other peoples responses to a persons behavior-that is rewards and punishments.
Internal means of control
It operates on the individual even in the abscence of reactions by others
Sanctions
Rewards and penalties that a groups members use to a regulate an individuals behavior
Postiive Sanctions
Actions that encourage an individual to continue acting in a certain way.
Negative sanctions
Actions that discourage the repetition or continuation of the behavior
Formal Sanctions
applied in a public ritual as in the rewarding or a prize or an announcement of expulsion, and are usually under the direct or indirect contorl of authorities.
Informal positive sanctions
displays people use spontaneoulsy to express their approval of anothers behavior
Informal negative sanctions
spontaneous displays of disapproval or displeasure
Formal positive sanctions
Public affairs , rituals, ceremonies that express social approval of a persons behavior
Formal negaive sanctions
actions that express institutioinalized dissapprocal of a persons behvaior.
Lombroso
Believed that criminals are evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than human. They are driven by their instincts to engage in deviant behavior. He belived that these people could be recognized by certain physical signs. An animal like body type, head size, facial characteristics, and hair color.
Lombroso v. Sheldon
They both believe you can classify a criminal by their physical characteristics.
Mertons deviant labels
1. innovators
2. ritualists
3. retreatists
4. rebels
innovators
accept the culturally validated goals of success but find deviant ways of going about reaching it.
ritualists
individuals who reject or de emphasize the importnace of success once they realize they wil never achieve it and instead concentrate on following and enforcing rules more precisely than was ever intended.
retreatists
people who pull back from society all together and cease to pursue culturally legitimate goals
rebels
reject both the goals of what to them is an unfair social order and the institutioalized means of achieving them
Control theory
Believe that people are freee to violate norms if they lack intimate attachments. Without attachements people can violate norms without the fear of public dissapproval. Assumes that the dissapproval of others plays a major role in preventing deviance.
Postiive Sanctions
Actions that encourage an individual to continue acting in a certain way.
Negative sanctions
Actions that discourage the repetition or continuation of the behavior
Formal Sanctions
applied in a public ritual as in the rewarding or a prize or an announcement of expulsion, and are usually under the direct or indirect contorl of authorities.
Informal positive sanctions
displays people use spontaneoulsy to express their approval of anothers behavior
Informal negative sanctions
spontaneous displays of disapproval or displeasure
Formal positive sanctions
Public affairs , rituals, ceremonies that express social approval of a persons behavior
Formal negaive sanctions
actions that express institutioinalized dissapprocal of a persons behvaior.
Lombroso
Believed that criminals are evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than human. They are driven by their instincts to engage in deviant behavior. He belived that these people could be recognized by certain physical signs. An animal like body type, head size, facial characteristics, and hair color.
Lombroso v. Sheldon
They both believe you can classify a criminal by their physical characteristics.
Mertons deviant labels
1. innovators
2. ritualists
3. retreatists
4. rebels
innovators
accept the culturally validated goals of success but find deviant ways of going about reaching it.
ritualists
individuals who reject or de emphasize the importnace of success once they realize they wil never achieve it and instead concentrate on following and enforcing rules more precisely than was ever intended.
retreatists
people who pull back from society all together and cease to pursue culturally legitimate goals
rebels
reject both the goals of what to them is an unfair social order and the institutioalized means of achieving them
Control theory
Believe that people are freee to violate norms if they lack intimate attachments. Without attachements people can violate norms without the fear of public dissapproval. Assumes that the dissapproval of others plays a major role in preventing deviance.
Four ways to bond to society
1. attachment to others
2. commitment to conformity
3. involvment in conventional activites
4. belief in moral validity of social rules
Theory of differential association
Based on the idea that criminal behavior is learned in groups. When criminal behavior is learned it includes two components
1. criminal techniques (how to break into a house)
2. criminal attitudes (justification for criminal behavior)
Labeling Theory
The focus shifts from the deviant individual to the social process by which a person comes to be labeled as deviant and the consequnces of such labeling for the individual.
Where does Oklahoma Rank when looking at Capital Punishment. (sheer numbers and per capita)
Per capita - #1
Sheer Numbers - 86 3rd place
How many executions has Oklahoma had? and Us
Oklahoma - 86
US - 1062
How many states use capital punishment? How many do not?
States that use - 38 plus military and US government.
How many people have been realeased from death row?
Oklahoma - 8
US - 124
When did Oklahomas first execution take place (post furman)?
1990
What issues surround the debate on Capital Punishment
The execution of the mentally retarded was unconstitutional cause they didnt understand what was happening. Should you be able to execute minors or not. Is it to severe of a punishment when there have been people on death row who were later found innocent.