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93 Cards in this Set

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macrosociology
analysis of social life that focuses on broad features of society, such as social class and the relationships of groups to one another; an approach usually used by functionalists and conflict theorists
microsociology
analysis of social life that focuses on social interaction; an approach usually used by symbolic interactionists
social interaction
what people do when they are in one another's presence
social structure
framework that surrounds us, consisting of the relationships of people and groups to one another, which give direction to and set limits on behavior
social class
a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige (Weber)
status
social ranking; the position that someone occupies in society or a social group
status set
all the statuses or positions that an individual occupies
ascribed statuses
positions an individual either inherits at birth or receives involuntarily later in life
achieved statuses
positions that are earned, accomplished, or involve at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
status symbols
items used to identify a status
master status
a status that cuts across the other statuses thatt an individual occupies
status inconsistency
tanking high on some dementions of social class and low on others
role
behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
role exit
ending or a role, including the adjustment people make when they face not 'being' what they formerly were
group
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called a social group
social institution
the organized, usual, or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs
society
people who share a culture and a territory
hunting and gathering society
human groups dependent on hunting and gathering for its survival
shaman
the healing specialist of tribal groups who attempts to control the spitits thought to cause a disease or injury; commonly called a witch doctor
pastoral society
a society based on the pasturing of animals
horticultural society
society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools
domestication revolution
firt social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals. which led to pastoral and horticultural societies
agricultural revolution
society based on large-scale agriculture, dependent on plows drawn by animals
industrial revolution
third social revolution occuring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
industrial society
a society based on the harnessing of achines powered by fuels
postindustrial (information) society
a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
bioeconomic society
an economy that centers around the application of genetics - human genetics for medicine, and plant/animal genetics for the production of food
deviance
violation of rules or norms
crime
violation of norms written into law
stigma
'blemishes' that discredit a person's claim to a 'normal' identity
social order
group's usual & customary social arrangements on which its members depend and on which they base their lives
social control
group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
negative sanction
expression of disapproval for breaking a norm ranging from mild/informal reaction (frown) to serious/formal reaction such as prison or execution
positive sanction
reward or positive reaction for following norms (smile. prize)
degradation ceremony
describes an attempt to remake the self by stripping away an ind. self-identity and stamping new identity in its place
culture
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
material culture
material objects that distinguish a group of people; such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, jewelry
nonmaterial culture
group's way of thinking (beliefs/values) and doing (patterns of behavior)
culture shock
disorientation people experience when they come in contact w/ fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend of their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
ethnocentrism
use of our own groups ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on it's own terms
values
standard by which people define what is desireable or undesireable, good/bad, beautiful/ugly
norms
expectations or rules of behavior that develop to relfect & enforce values
sanction
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
folkways
norms not stictly enforced
mores
norms strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or well-being of the group
taboo
norm so strong it often brings revulsion if violated
subculture
values & related behaviors of a group that distingusih its members from larger culture; world w/in a larger world of dominant culture
counterculture
group whose values, beliefs, & related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
pluralistic society
society made up of many different groups
social environment
entire human environment including direct contact with others
feral children
children assumed to have been raised by animals, in the wilderness, isolated from other humans
socialization
process by which people learn the characteristics of their group - knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate for them
self
unique capacity of being able to see ourselves 'from the outside'; the view we internalize of how others see us
looking - glass self
the process by which our self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us
taking the role of the other
putting oneself in someone else's shoes, understanding how someone else feels & thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act
significant other
an individual who significantly influences someone else's life
generalized other
norms, values, sttitudes, & expectations of people 'in general'; child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of self
agents of socialization
people or groups that affect our self-concept. attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life
manifest function
intended beneficial consequences of people's actions
latent function
unintended consequences of people's actions
anticipatory socialization
because one anticipates a futurerole, one learns parts of it now
coalition
the alignment of some members of a group against others
triad
a groups of three people
dyad
smallest possible group consisting of two persons
small group
group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
group dynamics
ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
deviance
violation of rules or norms
crime
violation of norms written into law
stigma
'blemishes' that discredit a person's claim to a 'normal' identity
social order
group's usual & customary social arrangements on which its members depend and on which they base their lives
social control
group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms
negative sanction
expression of disapproval for breaking a norm ranging from mild/informal reaction (frown) to serious/formal reaction such as prison or execution
positive sanction
reward or positive reaction for following norms (smile. prize)
degradation ceremony
describes an attempt to remake the self by stripping away an ind. self-identity and stamping new identity in its place
culture
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
material culture
material objects that distinguish a group of people; such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, jewelry
nonmaterial culture
group's way of thinking (beliefs/values) and doing (patterns of behavior)
culture shock
disorientation people experience when they come in contact w/ fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend of their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
ethnocentrism
use of our own groups ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging others
cultural relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on it's own terms
values
standard by which people define what is desireable or undesireable, good/bad, beautiful/ugly
networking
using one's social networkd for some gain
electronic community
individuals who regularly interact with one another on the internet & who think of themselves as belonging together
social network
social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together
clique
cluster or people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another; an internal faction
reference group
groups who use asstandards to evaluate ourselves
out-groups
groups toward which one feels antagonism
in-groups
groups toward which one feels loyalty
secondary group
a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous formal & impersonal groups based on some interest or activity whose members are likely to interact on the basis of specific roles
primary group
group characterized by intimate, long-term, fact to face association and cooperation
category
people who have similar characteristics
aggregate
individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but who do no see themselves as belonging together