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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
POWER
the ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interests they hold
AUTHORITY
Power that is widely perceived by the subordinates as legitimate (a government’s legitimate use of power)
GOVERNMENT
The enacting of policies and decisions on the part of officials within a political apparatus
POLITICS
The means by which power is employed to influence the nature and content of governmental activities
STATE
exists where there is a political apparatus (government institutions) ruling a given territory
NATION-STATES
a government apparatus that is recognized to have sovereign rights within the borders of a territorial area. It backs its claims to sovereignty by military power. Its citizens feel committed to its national identity. All modern states are nation states.
SOVEREIGNTY
a government possesses authority over an area with clear-cut borders, within which it is the supreme power
CITIZENSHIP
most people living within the borders of the political system are citizens
NATIONALISM
a set of symbols and beliefs providing the sense of being part of a single political community
CIVIL RIGHTS
rights of the individual in law
POLITICAL RIGHTS
refer to the right to take part in politics
SOCIAL RIGHTS
right of every individual to enjoy a minimum standard of living. Social rights are the basis of the welfare state
DEMOCRACY
a political system in which the people rule
PARTICIPATORY (DIRECT) DEMOCRACY
Democracy in which decisions are mad communally by those affected by them
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
Representative multiparty democracy (such as the United States)
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
A system of government with a royal family whose powers are severely restricted by a constitution, which puts authority in the hands of democratically elected representatives
POLITICAL PARTIES
organization oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process
INTEREST GROUPS
any organization that attempts to influence elected officials to consider their aims when deciding on legislation
DEMOCRATIC ELITISM
the view that direct democracy is impossible because running a government requires decision-making by individual experts, not the mass of citizens. As a result, the rule of elites is inevitable. (Weber and Schumpeter)
PLURALIST THEORIES
continual bargaining and competition among different groups (interest groups)
POWER ELITE
political power is concentrated in the hands of the power elite (C. Wright Mills)
SOCIAL MOVEMENT
organized collective attempt to further common interests through collaborative action outside the sphere of established institutions
REVOLUTION
overthrow of political order by using violence
ORGANIZATION
organization of the group or groups involved
MOBILIZATION
the ways in which a group acquires sufficient resources to make collective action possible
COMMON INTERESTS
the common interests of those engaging in collective action, what they see as the gains and losses likely to be achieved by their policies
OPPURTUNITIES
chance events that may occur that provide opportunities to pursue revolutionary aims
WORK
carrying out tasks that require to expenditure of mental and physical effort, which has its objective the productions of goods and services that cater to human needs.
OCCUPATION
work that is done in exchange for a regular wage.
ECONOMY
consists of institutions that provide for the production and distribution of goods and services
TECHNOLOGY
the harnessing of science to machinery to achieve greater productive efficiency
INFORMAL ECONOMY
transactions outside the sphere of regular employment, sometimes involving the exchange of cash for services provided, but also often involving the direct exchange of goods or services
DIVISION OF LABOR
work has become divided into an enormous number of different occupations in which people specialize
ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE
depending on an immense number of other workers for the products and services that sustain our lives
TAYLORISM
scientific management
FORDISM
system of mass production ties to the cultivation of mass markets
ALIENATION
Marx

feelings of indifference or hostility not only to work, but to the overall framework of industrial production within a capitalist setting
LOW-TRUST SYSTEMS
taylorism and fordism

jobs are set by management and are geared to machines and those who carry out the work tasks are closely supervised and are allowed little autonomy of action. The level of worker dissatisfaction and absenteeism is high, and industrial conflict is common.
HIGH-TRUST SYSTEM
workers are permistted to control the pace and even the content of their work, within overall guidelines
STRIKE
a temporary stoppage of work by a group of employees in order to express a grievance or enforce a demand
UNION DENSITY
a statistic that represents the number of union members as a percentage of the number of people who could potentially be union members
CAPITALISM
a way of organizing economic life that is distinguished by the following important features: private ownership of means of production; profit as incentive; free competition for markets to sell goods, acquire cheap materials, and utilize cheap labor; and restless expansion and investment to accumulate capital.
ENTREPRENEUR
the boss who owns and runs the firm
MONOPOLY
when one firm occupies a commanding position in a given industry
OLIGOPOLY
a small group of giant corporations pre-dominate; firms are able more or less to dictate the terms on which they buy goods and services from the smaller firms that are their suppliers.
FAMILY CAPITALISM
when large firms were run either by individual entrepreneurs or by members of the same family and then passed on to their descendants
MANAGERIAL CAPITALISM
as managers came to have more and more influence through the agers came to have more and more influence through the growth of very large firms, the entrepreneurial families were displaced
WELFARE CAPITALISM
a practice that sought to make the corporation the primary shelter from the uncertainties of the market in modern industrial life
INSTITUTIONAL CAPITALISM
the emergence of a consolidated network of business leadership; based on the practice of corporations holding shares in other firms.
TRANSNATIONAL/MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION
a company that operates across many different national boundaries.
INTERNATIONAL DIVISION OF LABOR
specialization in producinf goods for the world market that divides regions into zones of indusrial or agricultural production or high- or low-skilled labor.
ETHNOCENTRIC TRANSNATIONALS
company policy is set and as far as possible put into practice from a headquarters in the country of origin.
POLYCENTRIC TRANSNATIONALS
overseas subsidiaries are managed by local firms in each country
GEOCENTRIC TRANSNATIONALS
managerial systems are integrated on a global basis, and higher managers are very mobile, moving from country to country as needs dictate
AUTOMATION
programmable machinery
POST-FORDISM
a new era of capitalist economic production in which flexibility and innovation are maximized in order to meet market demands for diverse, customized products
GROUP PRODUCTION
collaborative work groups in place of assembly lines
QUALITY CIRCLES (QCs)
groups of between 5 and 20 workers who meet regularly to study and resolve production problems
FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION
computer-aided design; allows the customization of products
KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
an economy in which ideas, information, and forms of knowlesge underpin innovation and economic growth.
PORTFOLIO WORKER
workers that will have a number of different job skills and credentials