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33 Cards in this Set

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Structural Characteristicts of Poverty
Poor are not evenly distributed mong the states, many cluster in the south. 9 percent of whites are poor, 22 percent of blacks are poor, and 11 percent are Asian American's. The less education the more chance you are of being poor. Whoever heads the family may cause them to be poor..If a girl head the family, they are 7 times more likely to be poor.
Kahl and Gilbert
updated Weber and came up with the six-class model to portray the class structure of the United States and other capitalist countries. Consist of the Capitalist Class, the Upper Middle Class, the Lower Middle Class, the Working class, the working poor, and the underclass
Nature vs. Nurture
claiming that deviance is learned instead of inherited
Patriarchy
a society or group in which men dominate women; authority is vested in males
Matriarchy
a society in which women as a group dominate men as a group
Minority Group
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
Gender inequality
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regrad themselves as objects of collective discrimination
Gender Roles
roles that us as males or females play in society that are typically played by male or females
women in the workforce
women in the workforce has seen steady growth in the last few years.
Feminism
the philosophy that men and women should be politically, economically, and socially equal; organized activities on behalf of this principle
violence against women
includes forcible rape, date rape, murder, violence in the home, women in the criminal justice system (women commit less crime than males but when they commit the same crime, they tend to get off easier.
strain theory
Society tells us there are certain things you are supposed to have..some people can get them while others can't
culture shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
Merton
came up with the strain theory
Sociology of Mental Illness
Thomas Szasz argues that mental illnesses are neither mental nor illness. They are simply problem behaviors. Some forms of so called mental illnesses have organic causes; that is, they are physical illnesses that result in unusual perceptions or behavior
Norms
the expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop to reflect and enforce values
Crime
the violation of norms written into law
Hate Crime
crimes to which more severe penalties are attached because they are motivated by hatred of someone's race-ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin
White-Collar Crime
Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; for example, bribery of public officials, securities violations, embezzlement, false advertising, and price fixing
Sanctions
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Street Crime
crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary
Shaming
shaming is another sanction and is especially effective when member of a primary group use it. It is often used to keep children in line. Also effective in small communities, where the individual's repution is at stake
Social Control Theory
a theory stating that it is people nature to break norms and rules but they sometimes do not because they are connecting connected closley to people who do follow these norms and laws.
Wealth
property and income
Prestige
respect or regard
Status consistency
ranking high or low on all three dimensions of social class
structural mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society, not to individual efforts
Gender stratification
males' and females' unequal access to power, prestige, and property on the basis of their sex
gender
the behaviors and attitudes considered appropriate beacuse one is a female or a male
labeling theory
the view, developed by symbolic interactionists, that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior either into deviance or into conformity.
control theory
the idea that two control systems--inner controls and outer controls--work against our tendencies to deviate
Inner and outer controls
inner controls are fears of punishment, feelings of integrity, and the desire to be a "good" person....outer controls consist of people--such as family, friends, and the po po, who influence not to deviate
Techniques of Neutralization
ways of thinking rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) society's norms