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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Social Stratification
the divisoin of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
Caste System
the form of social stratification in which one's status is determined by birth and is lifelong
Estate system
the stratification system of medieval Europe, consisting of three groups or estates: the nobility, clergy, and commoners
Biological explanations for deviance
1) intelligence- low intelligence leads to crime

2) the "XYY" theory--an extra Y chromosome in males leads to crime

3) body type--people with "squarish, muscular" bodies are more likely to commit street crime- acts such as mugging, rape, and burglary.
sociological explanations for deviance
sociologist search for factors outside the individual. They look for social influences that "recruit" people to break norms. To account for why people commit crimes, soiologist examine such external influences as socialization, subcultural membership, and social class.
Class system
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
conflict theory
states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions
a form of social stratification in which all positions are awarded on the basis of merit
Methods of maintaining stratification
an effective way to maintain stratification is to use ideology(beliefs that justify the way things are). They developed the Divine right of the kings- the idea that the king's authority comes directly from god and if one is to disobey the king, they are disobeying god too.
the process by which one nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and natural resources
World System Theory
economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
Culture of Poverty
the assumption that the values and behaviors of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty, and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
the economic and political dominance of the Least Industrialized Nations by the Most industrialized nations
Core nations
the nations that industrialized first: included Britain, France, Holland, and later Germany.
Differential Association Theory
basically claiming that deviance is learned. This goes directly against the view that deviance is biological or is due to personality. Sutherland stressed that the different groups to which we belong give us messages about conformity and deviance. Consequently, we conform or deviate.
the nations around the Mediterranean that grew dependent on the trade with the core nations, and their economies stagnated.
the economies of the eastern European countries, which sold cash crops to the core nations, resulting in even less development.
globalization of capitalism
capitalism(investing to make profits) becoming the globe's dominant economic system.
social class
according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in wealth, power, and prestige; according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor
the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others
power elite
C. Wright Mills' term for the top people in the U.S. corporations, military, and politics that make the nation's major decisions
status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others, also called status discrepancy
Eric Wright's four class model
1. Capitalist
2. petty bourgeoisie
3. Managers
4. Workers
Intergenerational mobility
the change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
exchange mobility
about the same numbers of people moving up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change
Horatio Alger Myth
the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough
Individual characteristics of the poor
dropping out of school, bearing children in the teen years, and averaging more children than women in the other social classes
biological characteristics that distinguish females and males, consisting of primary and secondary sex characteristics