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86 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
NORMS
defiinite principle or rules people are expected to observe; "dos" and "don'ts" of society
DEVIANCE
defined as nonconformity to a given set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society
SANCTION
any reaction from others to the behavior of an individual
LAWS
norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow
CRIMES
any type of behavior that breaks a law
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION
an interpretation of the development of criminal behavior proposed by Edwin Sutherland, according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime (interactionist approach)
LABELING THEORY
suggests that people become "deviant" because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others
PRIMARY DEVIATION
-Edwin Lemert

the actions that cause others to label one as a deviant, 1st act of transgression
SECONDARY DEVIATION
-Lemert

occurs when an individual accepts the label of deviant an acts accordingly
CONFLICT THEORY
draws on Marxist thought; argues that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature
NEW CRIMINOLOGY
prominent in 1970s; regards deviance as deliberately chosen and often political in nature; criminologists say crime and deviance could only be understood in context of power and inequality within society.
CONTROL THEORY
crime occurs as a result of an imbalance between impulses toward criminal activity and social or physical controls that deter it
WHITE-COLLAR CRIME
-Edwin Sutherland (1949)

-carried out by people in more affluent society

-tax fraud, antitrust violations, illegal sales, securities and land fraud, embezzlement, manufacture or sale of dangerous products, and illegal environment pollution
CORPORATE CRIME
-committed by large corps. in society

-pollution, product mislabeling, and violations of health and safety regulations
ORGANIZED CRIME
-forms of avtivity that have some of the characteristics of orthodox business but are illegal

-gambling, drugs, prostitutions, large scale theft, and protection rackets.
CYBERCRIME
Electronic $$ laundering, ID theft, electronic vandalism, and monitoring electronic correspondence
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
describe inequalities among individuals and groups within human societies; class, status, and power
STRUCTURED INEQUALITIES
built into the system, rather than resulting from individual differences or chance occurrences
SLAVERY
people are owned as property by others
CASTE SYSTEM
one's status is given for life
ENDOGAMY
marriage within one's socail group as required by custom or law
CLASS
a group that occupies similar economic position in the wider society
KUZNETS CURVE
a formula showing that inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, the declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level
INCOME
refers to wages and salaries earned from paid occupation, plus unearned money from investments
LIFE CHANCES
-Max Weber

oppurtunities you have for achieving economic prosperity
WEALTH
all assets individuals own:
cash, savings and checking accounts, stocks, bonds, real estate properties, etc.
STATUS
prestige that goes along with one's social position
UPPER CLASS
very wealthies Americans, earn more than $145,099; %5 of American households
MIDDLE CLASS
a catchfall for a diverse group of occupations, lifestyles, and people who earn stable and substantial incomes at white collar jobs
WORKING CLASS
20%; blue collar and pink collar; $17,970-$33,300; at least 2 people in house will have to work
LOWER CLASS
15% of Americans; work part-time or not at all; below $17,000/yr.
UNDERCLASS
lack access to world of work and mainstream patients of behavior "new urban poor"
SOCIAL MOBILITY
movement of individuals and groups between different class positions as a result of changes in occupation, wealth, or income
INTRAGENERATIONAL MOBILITY
how far they move up or down the socioeconomic scale in the course of their working lives
INTERGENERATIONAL MOBILITY
where children are on the scale compared w/ their parents or grandparents; mobility across the generations.
EXCHANGE MOBILITY
an exchange of positions, such that more talented people in each generation move up the economic hierarchy, while the less talented move down
STRUCTURAL MOBILITY
upward mobility made possible by an expansion of better-paid occuptions at the expense of more poorly paid ones
INDUSTRIALISM HYPOTHESIS
societies become more open to movement between classes as they beome more technologically advanced
ASCRIPTION
placement in a particular social status based on characteristics such as family of origin, race, and gender
VERTICAL MOBILITY
movement along the socioeconomic scale
SHORT-RANGE DOWNWARD MOBILITY
occurs when an individual moves from 1 position in the class structure to another of nearly equal status
RELATIVE POVERTY
being poor as compared with the standards of living of the majority
POVERTY LINE
an income equal to 3 times the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet
WORKING POOR
people who work but whose earnings are not high enough to lift them above poverty
FEMINAZATION OF POVERTY
an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female
CULTURE OF POVERTY
the values, beliefs, lifestyles, habits, and traditions that are common among people living under conditions of material deprivation
DEPENDENCY CULTURE
-Charles Murray

poor people who rely on government welfare provision rather than entering the labor market
SOCIAL EXCLUSION
ways in which individuals may become cut off from involvement in the wider society
HOMELESS
very bottom of social hierarchy
MEANS OF PRODUCTION
means by which one gains a livelihood
CAPITALISTS
those who own the means of production
SURPLUS VALUE
source of profit
PARIAH GROUPS
negatively privileged status, subject to discrimination that prevents them from taking advantage of oppurtunities open to others
CONTRADICTORY CLASS LOCATIONS
-Erik Olin Wright

positions in the class structure, that share characteristics of the class positions both above and below them
SOCIAL CLOSURE
any process whereby groups try to maintain exclusive control over resources, limiting access to them
NEWLY INUSTRIALIZING ECONOMIES
rapidly growing economies of the world, East Asia and Latin America
MARKET ORIENTED THEORIES
assume that the best possible economic consequences are free, uninhibited by any form of governmental constraint, to make their own economic decisions
MODERNIZATION THEORY
low-income societies can develop economically only if they give up their traditional ways and adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural alues that emphasize savings and productive investment
NEOLIBERALISM
argues that free market forces provide the only route to economic growth
DEPENDENCY THEORIES
argue that the poverty of low-income countries stems from their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corps. that are based in wealthy countries
COLONIALISM
a political-economic system under which powerful countries establish rule over wekaer peoples or countries
DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT
poor countries can still develop econically, only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries
WORLD-SYSTEMS THEORY
world capitalist economic system is not merely a collection of independent countries engaged in diplomatic and economic relations with each other; bust must be understood as a single unit instead
CORE-COUNTRIES
most advanced industrial countries
PERIPHERAL COUNTRIES
low income, mostly agricultural countries that are often manipulated by core countries for their own economic advantage
SEMIPERIPHERAL COUNTRIES
semi-industrialized, middle-income countries that extract profits from the more peripheral countries and in turn yield profits to core countries
GLOBAL COMMODITY CHAINS
worldwide networks of labor and production processes yielding a finished product
STATE CENTERED THEORIES
argue that appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic developmetn but rather can play a key role in bringing it about
ETHNICITY
refers to cultural practices and outlooks of a given community that have emerged historically and tend to set people apart
RACE
a classification system that assigns individuals and groups to categories that are ranked or hierarchical
INSTITUTIONAL RACISM
racism pervades all of society's structures in a systematic manner
PREJUDICE
opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward anoher
DISCRIMINATION
actual behavior toward another group
GENOCIDE
the systematic, planned destruction of a political, racial, or cultural group
ETHNIC CLEANSING
creation of ethnically homogenous populations
ASSIMILATION
new immigrant groups would assume the attitudes and language of the dominant white community
MELTING POT
merging different cultures and outlooks by stirring them all together
PLURALISM
when ethnic cultures are given full validity to exist separately, yet participate in the larger society's economic and political life "salad bowl"
MULTICULTURALISM
ethnic groups exist separately and equally
SEGREGATION
a practice whereby racial and ethnic groups are kept physically separate by law, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group
GRAYING
experiencing an increase in the proportion becoming elderly
AGEISM
prejudice and/or discrimination based on age and fueled by stereotype
SOCIAL GERONTOLOGY
a discipline concerned with the study of the social aspects of aging
DISENGAGEMENT THEORY
notion that it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become elderly, thereby freeing up those roles for others
ACTIVITY THEORY
elderly people who are busy and engaged, leading fulfilling and productive lives, can be functional for society
CONFLICT THEORY OF AGING
emphasizes the ways in which the larger social structure helps to shape the oppurtunities available to the elderly