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30 Cards in this Set

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A term used by sociologists to refer to any of the full range of socially defined positions within large group or society
• Status
o The way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
• Social structure
A social position
assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.
• Ascribed status
o Print and electronic means of communication that carry messages to widespread audiences
• Mass media
A social position that a person attains largely through his or her own efforts
• Achieved status
o A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society
• Master status
o Any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis
• Group
o A three member group
• Triad
o A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal
• Coalition
o A component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency.
• Bureaucracy
o Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
• Deviance
o Going along with peers—individuals of our own status, who have no special right to direct our behavior
• Conformity
o A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
• Sanctions
o The techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
• Social control
o A set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic and political interests
• Dominant ideology
o An inclusive term encompassing all a person’s material assets, including land, stocks and other types of property
• Wealth
o A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
• Crime
o A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions.
• Cultural transmission theory
o An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not
• Labeling
o A condition in which members of society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
• Social inequality
The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural dominance over a people by a foreign power for an extended period
• Colonialism
o People who have the same prestige or lifestyle, independent of their class positions
• Status group
o The reputation that a specific person has earned within an occupation
• Esteem- related to a profession
An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
• Capitalism
o A hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immobile
• Caste
o A system of enforced servitude in which some people are owned by other people.
• Slavery
A view of the global economic system as one divided between certain industrialized nations that control wealth and developing countries that are controlled and exploited.
• World system analysis
A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs.
• Minority group
o The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
• Ethnocentrism
o An unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not recognize individual differences within the group
• Stereotype