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26 Cards in this Set

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social group
Two or more people who regularly interact on the basis of mutual expectations and share a common identity.
social category
A collection of individuals who have at least one attribute in common but otherwise don’t necessarily interact.
social aggregate
A collection of people who are in the same place at the same time but who otherwise don’t necessarily interact, except in the most superficial of ways, or have anything else in common.
primary group
A group that is usually small, that is characterized by extensive interaction and strong emotional ties, and that lasts over time.
secondary group
A group that is larger and more impersonal than a primary group and that exists to achieve a specific purpose.
reference group
A group that sets a standard for guiding our own behavior and attitudes.
in-group
A group to which members feel particularly loyal and take great pride in belonging.
out-group
A group with which an in-group feels it is competing for various kinds of rewards and compared to which the in-group feels superior.
social network
The totality of relationships that link us to other people and groups and through them to still other people and groups.
dyad
A two-person group.
triad
A three-person group.
instrumental leader
A leader whose main focus is to achieve group goals and accomplish group tasks.
expressive leader
A leader whose main focus is to maintain and improve the quality of relationships among group members and more generally to ensure group harmony.
authoritarian leadership
Leadership with a primary focus on achieving group goals and on rigorous compliance with group rules.
democratic leadership
Leadership that involves extensive consultation with group members on decisions.
laissez-faire leadership
Leadership that allows a group to function on its own.
groupthink
The tendency of group members to remain silent and, against their better judgments, to go along with the desires and views of other group members.
formal organization
A large group that follows explicit rules and procedures to achieve specific goals and tasks.
utilitarian organizations
Organizations that people join to provide them an income or some other personal benefit.
normative organizations
Formal organizations that people join to pursue their moral goals and commitment.
voluntary organizations
Normative organizations.
coercive organizations
Formal organizations that people enter involuntarily.
bureaucracy
A formal organization with certain organizational features designed to achieve goals in the most efficient way possible.
bureaucratic ritualism
In a bureaucracy, a greater devotion to rules and regulations (red tape) than to organizational goals.
iron law of oligarchy
Robert Michels’s prediction that large organizations inevitably develop an oligarchy, or the undemocratic rule of many people by just a few people, because their leaders monopolize knowledge and act to advance their own positions.
whistle-blowing
The revealing by an employee of organizational practices that the employee believes to be illegal and/or immoral.