Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two Major Functions of Theories
1) Theories help us determine the kinds of questions we ask

2)Theories provide a framework/ criteria to let us interpret what we study
Three Important Characteristics of Positivism
1) Positivists assume there is a strict subject/object dichotomy
2)Researcher is detached from the object of study
3) Researcher seks to discover causes
Five Basic Assumptions of Positivism
1) The social world can be understood in the same ways as the natural world by employing the same methods as the natural sciences
2) There is an objective reality external to the researcher
3) Empirical observation (senses) is the only way to gather data. conclusions must be verified by other researchers employing the same methods (intersubjective testability)
4) The social world is ordered in a predictable way, therefore it is possible to construct universal laws about the social world and human action that hold true across time, place, and culture
5) There is a certain unity to all sciences, including the social sciences. All sciences share the same methods of acquiring knowledge about the world. these methods are the best if not the only way of uncovering legitimate knowledge.
Three Basic Assumptions of the Interpretive Approach
1) Human actions are motivated by the meanings people attach to events, people, and things
2) These meanings are the result of social interactions between people
3)Each individual interprets the messages she or he receives from others in order to construct an understanding of events, people, and things
Critical Approach, Two Assumptions
1) Attempts to bridge gap b/w interpretive & positivist theories

2) This approach is guided by an emancipatory interest. How does knowledge allow for positive social change?
Two Categories of Methodological Strategies
1) Methods based on the idea of value free knowledge and objective research

2) Relativistic methods which acknowledge the influence of social and cultural values in structuring knowledge
Research Cycle/Scientific Method
1) Define a problem
2) State the hypothesis to be tested
3) Operationalize key concepts
4) Collect & analyze data
5) Interpret results and draw conclusions about the problem
Interpretive Research Methods
1) People are observed within their own context in which they interact
2) Researcher is sensitive to subjects and tries not to be intrusive
3) Try to understand people from their own frame of reference
4) Researcher suspends own beliefs; nothing is taken for granted
5) People's points of view must be considered equally valuable, "must be given a voice"
6) Methods are humanistic, cannot reduce people's experiences to stats
7) Methods are flexible; no set rules
Standpoint Epistemology
1) Material life of researcher structures and limits understandings
2)Powerful/less powerful members of society often have opposing understandings of the social world
3)Everyday life has epistemological consequences. The standpoint of the less powerful has a greater chance of competing because the powerful try to maintain/legitimize their position, understanding of the social world limited to accomplishing this
Participatory Research
1) People should be involved in the entire process of research, including identification of issues, discussion of how to get info, how to analyze, and how to use results within the context of action (key)
2) Research should have direct and positive benefits for people/ communities involved
3) Research is a process of knowledge production which may or may not involve professional researchers
4) Knowledge is enriched & made more socially usable when it is collectively produced
5) Research includes a combination of methods designed to facilitate collective production of knowledge
6) Research, learning, and knowledge production are often aspects of the same intellectual processes in the context of action