Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/28

Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Criminal Organizations
We determined that each step up in our continuum meant greater sophistication and bigger and better forms of deviance
The first order of business for a criminal organization is business
The organizations form to promote their activity and protect it from lessening in profit or from competition
The goal of a criminal organization is exactly the same as a regular corporation
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Activities involved must be criminal

criminals engaged in particular activities must be organized

underlying purpose is to make a profit from illegal acts

Willingness to use Violence to promote and protect their interests
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Activities involved must be criminal
There must be a prescribed punishment by a legal authority capable of enforcing laws
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features

criminals engaged in particular activities must be organized
Directed by visible leaders with reasons and goals
There is no pattern of organization for these types of endeavors; they tend to take the shape of what ever works best for their particular goals
Means of attaining goals can be innocuous; goals must be outside of the law
Using import/export business to launder money
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features

underlying purpose is to make a profit from illegal acts
They employ a large number of people whose activities are coordinated over time
Not a temporary organization
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Willingness to use Violence to promote and protect their interests
Deliberate use of violence as a tool
Use other illegal acts, such as bribery, to ensure security
Informal Economy
Informal Economy
Entrepreneurial activities that are classified as illegitimate
These types of economies account for larger portions of a country’s GDP than legitimate economies
Presence of an informal economy does not necessarily mean there is organized crime
However, the presence of an informal economy does indicate that conditions are correct for a criminal organization to gain power
Some informal economies are for the benefit of the average citizen
In the Soviet Union there was an extremely large informal economy of private goods being bought and sold; without this economy life would have been much more difficult
Certain activities have been excluded from informal economies
Kidnapping?, murder, prostitution?
Why its hard to study criminal organizations
Criminal organizations often feature family ties
Not true in all cases but being devised around a core identity creates an ease of operation not otherwise found
More likely to ensure fidelity and obedience if there is a strong core similarity
Ethnic rituals and rites make a group more cohesive and more secure
Knowing the beliefs and mannerisms of all other members ensures that an infiltrator can be spotted

Best Definition of a Criminal Organization
“Organized crime is defined by a more or less formal structure that endures over time, is directed toward a common purpose by a recognizable leadership operating outside the law, is quite often based on family or ethnic identity, and is prepared to use violence or other means to promote and protect common interests and objectives.” (Adler, 2006; pg. 381)
International Criminal Organizations
Global Scale of Operation
Do not operate within one country or geographic area
Extreme flexibility compared to other criminal organizations
Having compatriots in other countries allows for an immediate change in operation when one section is interrupted by law enforcement

Transational Links
Traditional criminal organizations may have loose ties to other criminal organizations but do not interact on a daily basis; ICOs are themselves multinational and almost never operate solely in one border
Capable of utilizing already deviant subcultures within a country to create instability to further their cause
They have no vested interest in the sustainability of a nation and can take advantage of unrest
Will work with insurgents and terrorists for ease of operation
Challenge to authority
Scope and amount on money involved means that these groups can become extremely powerful
Benefited by social unrest and will use it as a tactic

Readily available arms, the will to use violence, and the scope of the operation make ICOs extremely dangerous
3 major characteristics of organized crime that appear at the end of the 20th century
1. Global canvas of traditional criminal activity
2. Growth of transnational links within and between groups
3. Growing power of the criminal organization to threaten the power of an entire state


A criminal organization who exhibits all three of these new characteristics is known as an ICO, or International criminal organization
International Criminal Organizations
Global Scale of Operation
Do not operate within one country or geographic area
Extreme flexibility compared to other criminal organizations
Having compatriots in other countries allows for an immediate change in operation when one section is interrupted by law enforcement
International Criminal Organizations


Transational Links
Traditional criminal organizations may have loose ties to other criminal organizations but do not interact on a daily basis; ICOs are themselves multinational and almost never operate solely in one border
Capable of utilizing already deviant subcultures within a country to create instability to further their cause
They have no vested interest in the sustainability of a nation and can take advantage of unrest
Will work with insurgents and terrorists for ease of operation
International Criminal Organizations

Challenge to authority
Scope and amount on money involved means that these groups can become extremely powerful
Benefited by social unrest and will use it as a tactic
Criminal Organizations
We determined that each step up in our continuum meant greater sophistication and bigger and better forms of deviance
The first order of business for a criminal organization is business
The organizations form to promote their activity and protect it from lessening in profit or from competition
The goal of a criminal organization is exactly the same as a regular corporation
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Activities involved must be criminal

criminals engaged in particular activities must be organized

underlying purpose is to make a profit from illegal acts

Willingness to use Violence to promote and protect their interests
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Activities involved must be criminal
There must be a prescribed punishment by a legal authority capable of enforcing laws
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features

criminals engaged in particular activities must be organized
Directed by visible leaders with reasons and goals
There is no pattern of organization for these types of endeavors; they tend to take the shape of what ever works best for their particular goals
Means of attaining goals can be innocuous; goals must be outside of the law
Using import/export business to launder money
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features

underlying purpose is to make a profit from illegal acts
They employ a large number of people whose activities are coordinated over time
Not a temporary organization
Criminal Organizations characteristically exhibit 4 features
Willingness to use Violence to promote and protect their interests
Deliberate use of violence as a tool
Use other illegal acts, such as bribery, to ensure security
Informal Economy
Informal Economy
Entrepreneurial activities that are classified as illegitimate
These types of economies account for larger portions of a country’s GDP than legitimate economies
Presence of an informal economy does not necessarily mean there is organized crime
However, the presence of an informal economy does indicate that conditions are correct for a criminal organization to gain power
Some informal economies are for the benefit of the average citizen
In the Soviet Union there was an extremely large informal economy of private goods being bought and sold; without this economy life would have been much more difficult
Certain activities have been excluded from informal economies
Kidnapping?, murder, prostitution?
Why its hard to study criminal organizations
Criminal organizations often feature family ties
Not true in all cases but being devised around a core identity creates an ease of operation not otherwise found
More likely to ensure fidelity and obedience if there is a strong core similarity
Ethnic rituals and rites make a group more cohesive and more secure
Knowing the beliefs and mannerisms of all other members ensures that an infiltrator can be spotted

Best Definition of a Criminal Organization
“Organized crime is defined by a more or less formal structure that endures over time, is directed toward a common purpose by a recognizable leadership operating outside the law, is quite often based on family or ethnic identity, and is prepared to use violence or other means to promote and protect common interests and objectives.” (Adler, 2006; pg. 381)
International Criminal Organizations
Global Scale of Operation
Do not operate within one country or geographic area
Extreme flexibility compared to other criminal organizations
Having compatriots in other countries allows for an immediate change in operation when one section is interrupted by law enforcement

Transational Links
Traditional criminal organizations may have loose ties to other criminal organizations but do not interact on a daily basis; ICOs are themselves multinational and almost never operate solely in one border
Capable of utilizing already deviant subcultures within a country to create instability to further their cause
They have no vested interest in the sustainability of a nation and can take advantage of unrest
Will work with insurgents and terrorists for ease of operation
Challenge to authority
Scope and amount on money involved means that these groups can become extremely powerful
Benefited by social unrest and will use it as a tactic

Readily available arms, the will to use violence, and the scope of the operation make ICOs extremely dangerous
3 major characteristics of organized crime that appear at the end of the 20th century
1. Global canvas of traditional criminal activity
2. Growth of transnational links within and between groups
3. Growing power of the criminal organization to threaten the power of an entire state


A criminal organization who exhibits all three of these new characteristics is known as an ICO, or International criminal organization
International Criminal Organizations
Global Scale of Operation
Do not operate within one country or geographic area
Extreme flexibility compared to other criminal organizations
Having compatriots in other countries allows for an immediate change in operation when one section is interrupted by law enforcement
International Criminal Organizations


Transational Links
Traditional criminal organizations may have loose ties to other criminal organizations but do not interact on a daily basis; ICOs are themselves multinational and almost never operate solely in one border
Capable of utilizing already deviant subcultures within a country to create instability to further their cause
They have no vested interest in the sustainability of a nation and can take advantage of unrest
Will work with insurgents and terrorists for ease of operation
International Criminal Organizations

Challenge to authority
Scope and amount on money involved means that these groups can become extremely powerful
Benefited by social unrest and will use it as a tactic