Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Classical School/Enlightenment
-Crime is rational
-free will
-crime is a choice, so make it unattractive
-Crimes not always rational
-Doesn’t explain why people continue to do crime if they know the punishment
-Key thinkers: Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham
-Took measurements and data
-Determinism - behavior out of human control, social and genes
-identify criminal type
-Problems: racism; motivations not meanings; not everyone with certain background is criminal; no room for volunteerism or choice
Biological Positivism

Lombroso, Goring, Kretschmer, Hooton
-Lombroso - criminals genetically different
-Problems - racist and sexist

-Goring measured people in army
-Kretschmer – members of insane asylum
-Hooton – criminals in jail
Psychological Positivism

Goddard, Bowlby, Eysenck
-mental characteristics
-Goddard – found criminal’s IQs below average
-Bowlby – studied maternal deprivation and juvenile delinquency
Eysenck – personality part genetic, part environment
Sociological Positivists

Quetelet and Guerry, Durkheim, Shaw and McKay
Quetelet and Guerry: studied statistics, thought they could predict crime
-Crimes less violent and more cunning as people got older
-Alcohol related to homocide
-More male criminals than female
-Industrialization and change increase crime

Emile Durkheim – suicide rate determined by
 Religion
 Industrialization
 Social change
 Social networks/ties

Shaw and McKay
– weak institutions = more crime
Social Learning Perspectives

Edwin Sutherland, Daniel Glaser, Ronald Ackers
-Edwin Sutherland: “differential association theory” - Who you hang out with
• Learn techniques, rationalizations, and motivations of crime

o Daniel Glaser – “differential identification theory”
 Learned from role models

o Ronald Ackers – “social learning theory” - positive of negative feedback immediately after crime?
Strain Theory
Crime caused or motivated by outside forces
Strain Theorists

Durkheim, Merton, Messner and Rosenfield, Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin, Agnew
-Durkheim – “anomie theory”: Rapid industrialization can lead to breakdown of social institutions and norms

-Merton – Goals vs. Means

-Messner and Rosenfield – “American Dream” and capitalist values

-Albert Cohen – “status frustration”

-Cloward and Ohlin – lower classes have fewer opportunities, blocked opportunities

-Agnew – negative relations and events, Provides feeling of injustice; Juvenile delinquency occurs when negative feedback happens habitually
Control Theory

Hirschi, Sampson and Laub, Hagan
-Attachment, Commitment, Involvement, Belief

-Sampson and Laub – lifecourse criminology

-Hagan – power control theory, why women less deviant
Symbolic Interactionism
-Questioned Positivism
-deviance sometimes socially constructed
Symbolic Interactionist -

Herbert Blumer
-people act on basis of meaning, not just background
-action, not behavior
Symbolic Interactionist-

Howard Becker
-things which vary from norm are deviant
-things bad for society are deviant
-master status
-snowball effect
-Radical criminology
-Rich make laws to disadvantage of poor
-Problem: romantic view
-left realism acknowledged faults
Erving Goffman
-suggest mental illness was a form of social labeling, social control
-total institution
Total institution
(1) clear boundary
(2) hierarchy
(3) internal organization

-Rite of passage – lose citizen status and obtain inmate status

Coping strategies
-Situational withdrawal – listen to radio, read, etc.
-Intransigent line – refusing to cooperate with authorities
-Colonization – inmate enthusiastically adapts ways of institution
-Conversion – inmate adopts worldview of staff
-Resistance – engage in moments of illegal activity, use official property for illegal activity
Becoming a Marijuana User

-look at social experiences

(1) novice
(2) novice tries and fails
(3) novice learns techniques
(4) user interprets symptoms as positive

-people have to learn to recognize and encourage certain symptoms
Jack Katz
-"sensual moral advantage"- superiority over others b/c you know you're going to commit the crime

-"righteous slaughter"/"divine rage"

shoplifting - sneaky thrill, magic power
Problems with crime reporting
-different definitions and districts
-data bad for low level crimes, victimless crimes, corporate crime
-good for crimes committed by stranger and serious crimes against person/property
Problems with crime victim surveys
-common sense not same as law
-miss marginal groups
-crimes against organizations
-victimless crimes
-middle class bias
-problems are talked into being

-contextual- real problems amplified or muted
Moral Crusades
-groups campaign to have something problematized
-hard to identify lead group or institution

-ex: marijuana criminalization, music censorship, abortion, gay marriage, polygamy
Stanly Cohen
-1st study of moral panic
-riot at British seaside at beach huts
-between Mods and Rockers
-Cohen argued this was grossly exagerrated
Moral Panic concepts
-folk devil - lawless person
-sensitization - anything that can be linked is
-deviance amplification -media generates forms of deviance
Core Features of Moral Panic
-hostility toward group
-widespread consensus
-society needs moral boundaries and direction
-reaffirm committment to values
-by punishing those who deviate, you reestablish the collective order
Types of Drug Us4e
-social use: taken b/c socially acceptable, not addicted
-situational - truck drivers to stay awake
-intensified - take drugs to ease daily life
-compulsive - cannot regulate selves
Levels of Prostitution
(1) street walker
(2) brothel worker
(3) call girls