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57 Cards in this Set

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ethnocentrism
evaluating other cultures by the standards of your own
cultural relativism
all cultures should be evaluated on their own terms
How did Bierstedt define ideas?
as patterns or ways of thought
How did Dierstedt define norms?
as culturally approved of ways of doing things
ideas + norms =
ideology
norms + material culture =
technology
ideology + technology =
culture
what are the five points about culture?
it's shared, collectively experience/built, it's learned, it's taken for granted, and it varies
What did herbert spencer do?
he wass the first to apply darwin to the social world
eugenics
cultivating best among human characteristics
sociobiology
application of biological principles to social life
innovation
source of any new cultural trait
diffusion
spreading of something from one society to another
reformulation
growth and change as a result of innovation and diffusion
cultural lag
material culture changes faster than non-material culture
subculture
distinctive lifestyle group within a larger society
what are the four types of subcultures?
occupation, religious, political, and geographical
"community" in german
gemeinschaft
"society" in german
gesellschaft
what are the three types of gemeinschaft relationships?
blood relations, geographical, and common experience
what is gesellschaft based on?
exchange
functional rationality
follow the rules and you'll get what you wanted
substantive rationality
the desirable end
The Free Rider Problem
it's in our best interest to cheat
deviance
behaviors that violate the norm
deviants
identity attaahed to a person whose behavior violates the norm
absolutism
deviance is a malfunction of behavior. right and wrong are distinct
relativism
sees complexity and context. right and wrong don't exist
what are the three elements of deviance?
expectation, violation, and reaction
structural-functionalism
society is a smooth running organism
manifest
purpose society is designed for
latent
things not designed for, but happens anywhere
what is the base of the marxist theory made of?
economics or division of labor
what does the weberian model look like?
a circle with many smaller circles inside that are constantly creating friction
what are collins' three theories of where crime comes from?
liberal explanation (criminal not totally to blame), conservative explanation (can't punish enough), radical explanation (focus on deviance)
What are three consequences of poverty?
homelessnes, illness, and psychology
race
category of people defined as similar because of a number of physical characteristics (inherited)
ethnic group
share distinct cultural tradition (learned)
minority
people who receive different treatment based on physical or cultural differences
assimilation
minority groups conform ways to dominant culture
multiculturalism
result of not assimilating, differences should be prized
racism
belief that humans are "naturally" subdivided into groups with different behaviors and capacities
prejudice
acting upon that rank
discrimination
result of prejudicial actions
what are mertons four types of people?
unprejudiced non-discriminator, unprejuiced discriminator, prejudiced non-discriminator, and prejudiced discriminator
sex
biological or anatomical differences
gender
psychological, social, cultural differences
what does weber say that the three eras are?
pre-modern, pastoral, and traditional civilizations
what are the two things propelling human history?
exploitation and rationalization
stratification
ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates life chance opportunities
social class
groups of people with similar position in terms of wealth and income
socio-economic position
includes the prestige and respect afforded to different levels of society
social mobility
alibity to move up or down the ladder
structural-functionalist
society needs certain tasks to be done.
feminization
women who are divorced are more likely to live in poverty
relative
economic position compared to the standard conditions of the majority
poverty
absolute minimal requirements necessary to live a healthy lifestyle