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40 Cards in this Set

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the systematic study of human society and social interaction
sociology
What social revolution occured between 1760-1850 in Great Britain, which spread through the rest of W.Europe and the U.S. thereafter?
The Industrial Revolution
the concentration of humanity into cities rather than in rural areas (includes "suburbs" of today)
Urbanization
_________ believed that constraints on the individual's potential are socailly-based, NOT biologically-based. _______ viewed society as characterized by social structure/stability; change is the exception.
Emile Durkheim’s contributions (e.g., Suicide)
the sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system.
functionalist perspectives
the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
conflict perspectives (including feminist theory)
Gender is the key element of social structure and social life
the sociological approach that views society as the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups. The process of interactions and symbols are important.
symbolic interactionist perspectives
the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
postmodern perspectives
The process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one defines
research
What are the two types of sociological research?
quantitative and qualitative
the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
culture
a group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society.
subculture ex. religious groups (Mormen, Jewish,...)
the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
socialization
_________'s notion of the
looking-glass self asserts that our perception of ourselves (our self-concept) is derived from how we think others perceive us.
3 phases:
1). We imagine how we appear to others.
2). We imagine how others judge the appearance we think we present.
3). We develop feelings based on these imagined judgments, i.e., self-concept is enhanced OR diminished.
C. H. Cooley’s view
_________ said “Selves can only exist in definite relations to other selves. No hard-and-fast line can be drawn between our own selves and the selves of others”
1. Prep. stage
2. Play Stage
3. Game stage
G. H. Mead’s view
the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
agents of socialization
ex. family, teachers, school, military, spots, media - tv
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior (including the norms/rules guiding this behavior) is called:
social structure
The process by which people act toward or respond to other people is called:
social interaction
the process of conveying a favorable image of ourselves.
Goffman's Impression management (presentation of self)
two or more people who interact and identify with each other ex. friendships, religious class
social group
the practices that groups or societies develop to encourage conformity and discourage deviance.
social control
What are two mechanisms of social control?
"internal" - socialization ex. values, beliefs, morals
"external" - outer mechanisims ex. security camera, gossip
Any behavior, belief, or condition that significantly differs from social norms of a group or a society.
Deviance
Look in notes about all perspective views on deviance
now - Chapter 6
the hierarchical arrangement of social categories based on their control over basic resources.
(a.k.a. “structured inequality”)
social stratification
Access to important societal resources.
 
life chances
a social category distinguished by socially-selected biological traits.
ex. skin tone, hair texture, eye and hair color
race
A social category distinguished (by others or by themselves) by subcultural and/or nationality traits. 
ethnicity
A social position that is relatively disadvantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., blocked opportunities to political influence, economic participation, rights.
minority status
A social position that is relatively advantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., influence politically, economic participation, rights.
majority status
a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected social categories, e.g., race, ethnicity, age, ability.
prejudice
Overgeneralizations about appearance, behavior, or other traits of members of social categories.
stereotypes
The practice of treating people unequally.
discrimination
when members of a racial or ethnic minority adopt aspects of dominant culture, e.g., language, dress, values, religion, and food.
Cultural assimilation (acculturation)
when members of a racial or ethnic minority gain acceptance into everyday social interaction with members of the majority race or ethnicity (e.g., in the workplace, in friendship, social clubs).
Structural assimilation (integration)
when members of one race or ethnicity marry members of another race or ethnicity.
Biological assimilation (amalgamation)
An individual person’s change in racial or ethnic self-identification.
Psychological assimilation
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between women and men.
Gender stratification
the advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.
Feminism
What are Macro-sociological causes of divorce
-Greater opportunities for women to be economically self-sufficient
-Legally, divorces are easier to obtain (no fault-based systems exist)
-Less cultural stigma on divorce