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161 Cards in this Set

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From Conley, which definition best describes the practice of sociology
the study of human society
As defined by C. WRight Mills, which of the following "enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society"?
sociological imagination
Charles H Cooley argues that the "self" emerges from how an indicidual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this:
the looking glass self
WHich of the following modern sociological theories grew from Durkheim's and others' ideas that the best way to analyze society was to identify the roles that different aspects or phenomena play in overall structure of society?
funcitonalism
which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
femenism
in contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of sociological change?
conflict theory
Conflict theory holds that
human social life is shaped by struggles among individuals and social groups
The symbols that humans use are distinct from the signs used by other species in that
symbols are productive and can take on a variety of meanings
According to your class notes, the major components of human societies and cultures sre
a material infrastructure, social structure and ideological superstructure.
the biological process of natural selection is not truly operative in sociocultural evolution because
a & b..natural selection operates on random variations AND most sociocultural variation is deliberately introduced
In the functionalist perspective, social institutions are
understood in terms of the benefits they provide for society as a whole
In the conflict perspective, the things people want are
scarce and a primary source of conflict between individuals and groups
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face to face encounters and interactions
microsociology
which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels
macrosociology
Harvard admits 3000 freshman selected from 20,000. admitted are children from alumni. This assures that new generations of grads will come from the same families. this is most consistent with
conflict perspective
the U of Iowa admits 5000 freshman from 10000 apps. financial aid offered so that all who meet qualifications are admitted. iowa hopes most grads will take jobs in the state
functionalist perspective
the interactionist perspective focuses on
everyday life
a problem that would be most relevant for study from an interactionist perspective would be
how one should dress for a job interview
Marx's theory of social change is most clearly identified with
historical materialism
the two general categories of sociological research are known as
quantitative and qualitative
the variable or outcome that a sociologist explains is known as the
dependent variable
the measured factors that a sociologist believes have a causal impact on another variable are known as the
independent variables
the subset of a population from which a researcher collects data is known as a
sample
research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. this is known as
informed consent
in the study of culture, norms that have moral significance attached to them are called
mores
while almost all forms of music talk about gender relationships and sex, warning labels are attached only to certain types of music. which explanation of culture accounts for this practice
conflict explanations of culture
in biological explanations of evolution, how is fitness determined?
by reproductive success (producing offspring)
In the interactionist perspective, social life is possible because:
we play roles
It is important to take into account differences across differences across culture without making value judgements. This is known as
cultural relativism
while they are difficult to define, ___ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant cultural values, but also have some of their own, unique material and nonmaterial or symbolic culture
subculture
the experience of learning a culture's norms, values and so on is known as
socialization
Gamsci's concept for the historical process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership by voluntarily receiving the approval and consent of the masses is known as
hegemony
the OJ simpson murder case and hurricane katrina are examples of which of the following
how the media reflects racist ideology
In the US, six major companies, including Disney and Time-Warner, own what percentage of the media?
90%
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist's work?
Mead's
Which theory uses game playing to understand the development of self?
mead's role playing theory
Which theorist extends his theory of socialization to span an entire lifetime, rather than just limiting it to explanations of childhood or adolescence
erikson
military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basics of peoples day to day lives, and are known as
total institutions
involuntary statuses that we are born into are called
ascribed statuses
voluntary statuses that we become over time are called
achieved statuses
in piaget's theory of cognitive development, at which stage are children most likely to believe that inanimate objects are alive and the world revolves around them?
the preoperational period
in piaget's theory of cognitive development, around what age is a fully-functioning cognitive adult formed?
around 12 years old
according to randall collin's (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is;
a result of and expend credentialism itures on formal education
all of the following are needed to establish causality except
panel study results
which of the following correctly represents Blim;s description of capitalism?
global industrial capitalism contributes to social inequality
Ritzer wrote about Cathedrals of Consumption; which of these best describes what Cathedrals of Consumption are designed for?
to artistically and scientifically lure people into consumption
Lovaglia writes about the power of the situation over the individual. one component of this is what social psychologists call correspondence bias. which of these is the best description of correspondence bias?
when an individual attributes their own behavior to situational factors, but the behavior of others to individual-level factors
which of the following reflects goffman's conception of the self
the self is a product of the scenes people find themselves in
to Furstenberg et al, what is the primary reason for prolonged early adulthood
it takes longer to secure a full time job that pays enough to support a family
which of the following statements best reflects the position of Karl Marx regarding the relationship between social structure and culture
marx believed that structural conditions were a source and explanation for cultural ideas
According to Karen Sternheimer, why is it wrong to blame video games for school shootings and violence?
a & d...most video games arent violent AND violence is removed from its context and attributed to media consumption alone
Rousseau believed that the source of all social ills was
private property
what is the term that refers to a form of wealth that can be stored for the future
assets
From Malthus's perspective, ___ keeps the population in check
inequality
according to the german philosopher, hegel, the master-slave relationship is one of mutual
dependency
which social stratification system was favored in feudal europe and the antebellum american south
estate system
a type of stratification that is based on hereditary notions of religious and theological purity and in which there is little to no individual mobility within the strata is the
caste system
the government's definition of poverty for a family of four is just under
21,000
the division of labor in hunter-gatherer societies is based principally on
age and sex
compared to hunting and gathering societies, agrarian societies have
increased work loads
human exploitation is greatest in
agrarian societies
social stratification exists when
societies display heredity social groups distinguished by unequal levels of power and privilege
social stratification in preindustrial societies is generally
more intensive in agrarian societies than in any other type of preindustrial society
which of the following are major consequences of industrial capitalism
-rapid and extensive urbanization
-major increases in productivity
-major changes in the organization of work
(ALL OF THE ABOVE)
industrial capitalism differs from other forms of capitalism because it involves
-the earning of profit through the use of wage workers
-the reorganization of the workforce into the factory system
( 2 answers)
which of the following is true regarding the distribution of wealth and income in the US
wealth is more unequally distributed that income
since the mid 1970s, income inequality in the US has
risen
in which type of society did organized welfare most likely begin
simple horticultural societies
which of the following are true regarding the merchant class in agrarian societies
they are usually regarded with great suspicion
which of the following is not a necessary characteristic of capitalism
democracy
which of the following statements reflect changes that ovvured in family structure as industrial capitalism replaced agrarian modes of production
children ebcome and economic liability in industrial capitalism
which of the following are not one of wright;s contradictory class locations in the market economic system
the bourgeoisie
which of the following are symptoms of the middle class squeeze in the united states
the growing use of easily available consumer credit
the major difference between the authoritarian and democratic route to capitalism hinges on
what landlords do with their land and peasants
william julius wilsom believed that there were factors other than welfare that led to a lack of inner-city job opportunities. which of the following is NOT one of the factors
industrialization
Molly Orshanksky used the US dept of agricultures recommendations for the minimum amount of healthy food, estimated the cost for a variety of family types and multiplied this figure by a factor of 3 to measure
the official poverty rate
when the official poverty line was first set, food made up the largest percentage of household budgets. In today;s society, what now makes up the largest percentage
housing
your text lists several explanations for why the US has the highest inequality of all english speaking nations. which of the following is NOT an explanation your text cites
the system of inequality in the US originated in europe
why is it more difficult for middle and working class americans to save money
job instability
which of the following wrote the dyad and triad, which argues what the number of people in a group helps to determine the form of the social relations within the group
simmel
a family is an example of which type of group identified by cooley
primary group
sociologists refer to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network as
embeddedness
according to date presented in chapter 4, which of the following is TRUE regarding social capital in the US today
social capital is decreasing
a process by which organizations face the same conditions, and ultimately tend to end up like each other, is known as
isomorphism
jacksons parents pay for him to attend private violin lessons and send him to language lessons after school.....parents investing in
cultural capitol
which of the following scenarios illustrates "stereotype threat"?
antoine, a black student at Yale is nervous about taking the LSAT. he fears that if his score is low he will confirm negative perceptions about the intelligence of black men. his fear then affects his performance, and he scores lower on the actual test than he did on practice tests
Tomas transfers to a new school when his family moves to a new district, and he is placed in a clasroom with students who have slightly higher average math grades than he does. Tomas is concerned that he will fall behind. based on the research, what is the most likely outcome
tomas will succeed and make academic gains when he is in the class with other high achievers
in 2004, approximately what percentage of American adults over age 25 had a college degree
28%
which of the following is most likely to be a functionalist explanation for the increase the number of Americans with college degrees throughout the course of the 20th century
jobs have become more skilled and technologically advances, and a more educated workforce is necessary to fill these jobs
which of the following is most likely to be a conflict perspective argument about why education levels have continually risen in the US over the course of the last century
as education became more common for all people, social elites needed to obtain more education in order to set themselves apart from others
in the feudal system, vassals were responsible for granting land to serfs. what is that land called?
fiefs
under feudalism, the lords did not reveive the profits from the land that they owned. who did?
vassals
during the agricultural revolution, the enclosure movement caused many former serfs to move to cities in search of work and led to the rise of
wage labor
various sectors in society have been influenced by the fast-fast industry. the expansion of the mcdonalds model has forced many industries to mcdonalidize their services in order to satisfy the growing demands of the fast food mogul. this is an example of what?
vertical mdonaldization
according to ritzer, one sign that mcdonalds is in tune with the contemporary lifestyle of americans is through an emphasis on the quantitative aspects of products sold and services offered. this is an example of which mcdonaldization dimension
calculability
education, the criminal justice system, healthcare, and religion are institutions that have been affected by mcdonaldization. which of the following sectors in contemporary society has escaped being mcdonaldized
mom and pop grocery stores
according to the grusky reading, what are the three general components of a stratification system
institutions, rules and definitions, stratification processes
what is the best example of status crystallization
because an individual has high status in one dimension, they will also have high status in other dimensions.
which of the following statements are true
status inequalities depend on the existence of positional inequalities
according to block and colleagues, how big is the gap between two parent incomes at the minimum wage and the american dream line?
26,000
according to rank, which of the following is NOT a reason why the lifetime risk of poverty is so high in the US
early retirement programs that push older people out of the labor market
according to contexts, which of the following were a major limitation of the research comparing purchases of GWC socks and unmarked socks in the michigan department store experiment
most of the customers did not notice or understand the GWC label
sociologists emphasize that racial groups are
physically distinguishable sub-populations with a particular social identity
in a paternalistic system of race relations, the dominant racial group perceives the subordinate racial group as
childish, lazy, impulsive and inferior, but lovable
which of the following is characteristic of a paternalistic system of race relations
an elaborate code of etiquette regulates social relations between racial groups
competitive systems of race relations emerged
with the abolition of slavery and the development of industrial capitalism
in competitive system of race relations
(all of above)
-dominant and subordinate racial groups mutually avoid each other
-overt forms of racial conflict are more common
-racial inequality is intertwined with a system of class stratification
after surveying the role of the sexes in the domestic, political and ideological sectors of a wide range of societies, sociologists conclude that the subordination of women is
-characteristic only of stratified societies
-universal
viewed from a comparative perspective, the overall status of women is highest in
hunting and gathering societies
viewed from a comparative perspective, the overall status of women is lowest in
agrarian societies
with the rise of capitalism and industrialism
the status of women has improved in most respects compared to agrarian societies
the marxist theories of the subordination of women suggest that
women play a major role in reproducing and exploitable labor force
political theories of subordination of women suggest that
war and militarism are responsible for womens subordination
which of the following best describes regarding gender relations among hunter gatherers??
(2 answers)
-men tend to enjoy a slightly higher status than women
-women enjoy relatively high status and consider autonomy
the status of women is lowest in horticultural societies that practice
patrilineal decent
the relative status of women rises and falls with
their relative economic contributions to the group
in matrilineal societies, a married adult male is a member of his
mothers matrilineage
in a matrilineal system, the male that assumes primary responsibility for the upbringing of children is
the childs maternal uncle
which of the following best describes the predominant mode of family and kinship organization in most western societies
bilateral decent; neolocal residence; nuclear family
the function of bridewealth is to
compensate the brides kinship group for the loss of her productive services
romantic love
did not become a widespread basis for marriage until the seventeenth century in western europe
the premodern family was
organized around economic production rather than emotional support
the emergence of romantic love as basis for marriage
occurred as young people began to reject parental interference in marriage arrangements
the intensification of racism in the late 19th century is largely attributable to the
economic and social changes that resulted from the abolition of slavery
which of the following statements regarding polyandry are true
polyandry develops in societies that practice female infanticide
which of the following are not responsible for the strains experienced by contemporary families
the mass media has lowered our expectations regarding families
which of the following options is true about the gender wage gap in the united states
none of the above
at any given point in the past few decades, about how many mothers raising children by themselves have had to go on welfare to get by in the united states
about half
about how long do the majority of single mothers stay on the welfare roles in the united states
about 2 years
what percentage of teens over the age of 14 admit they have had sexual intercourse
just under 50%
what argument do reskin and roos use to support the reason women end up in lower paid jobs
these jobs are not attractive to men
ethnocentrism is
judgement of other groups by one's own standards and values
how was the one drop rule related to laws forbidding miscegenation in the us
the one drop rule reinforced anti-miscegenation laws because any offspring of a mixed race union would be categorized as black
marriage within ones own group, class and race is known as
endogomy
according to research in ch 7, what percentage of todays us families consist of a male breadwinner, a female housewife, and their children
7%
approximately what percentage of US marriages end in divorce
40%
Amy and Raymond live together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning. this arrangement is known by sociologists as
cohabitation
aries wrote that children of preindustrial families were
thought of as small adults who didnt warrant any special treatment or nurturing
which of durkheims types of social solidarity characterized premodern life
mechanical solidarity
which type of social solidarity is based on interdependence bcause the members of society perform different and specialized functions, according to durkheim
organic solidarity
according to durkheims research, what is the primary reason that pretestants are more likely to kill themselves than catholics and jews
protestantism is premised on the individual, which creates less social integration
which main sociological theory takes a more micro or close up look at the individual to explain deviance
symbolic interactionist
the first acts of deviance that people engage in before they ever get caught and labeled are known as
primary deviance
which term best describes what happens when other people label a person and that label affects his or her actions
secondary deviance
which of the following statements is true regarding the current US incarceration rate
it is the highest in american history
social darwinism was the evolutionary notion of
survival of the fittest
the black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate conscious practices. which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book
high homeowner association dues
thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as
prejudice
the _____, also known as hypodescent, was a common law in the south that considered any black person if he or she had any known black african ancestry. this meant that racially mixed people are always assigned the status of the subordinate group
one drop rule
according to newman and o'brian, the cultural ideology of racism rests in the language we use. using terms such as culturally deprived, economically disadvantaged, marginalized, and underprivileged to describe racial groups is known as
political racism
which of these statements is the closest to a conflict theory interpretation of rape
rape is a behavior of control
which of the following is the best example of cultural legitimacy accorded to sexism in american society
gentlemanly patterns of behavior, such as a man holding a door open for a woman
from among the following descriptions, choose the one that best describes the mail survey, a data collection method that was utilized in Duncan and Duerdens (1990) research
the low cost to conduct a mail survey makes it appealing
according to clawson and gertsel, which of the following statements are true
childcare in the US is fragmentory and the quality of care is poor
why is it difficult for sure that growing up in a single parent family causes problems among children
both conditions (single parenthood and problems with children) could be caused by other factors
which of the following statements best reflects the reasons why there have been declines in sexual activity among american teenagers
virginity among boys increased dramatically
jerry jacob, which of the following statements are true regarding college education among young men and women
women earn more bachelor's degrees than men do and have since the early 1980s
what are some of the problems associated with the label "model minority" as it is applied to asians in the US
(all of the above)
-it reinforces the myth that the US is devoid of racism
-it holds asians to higher standards than whites
-it can channel asians toward specific avenues of success
which of the following are reasons why more people are reporting multiracial backgrounds when asked about their race on surveys and census forms
increased rates of racial intermarriage
according to rosenfeld, which of the following are not major reasons cited for the decline in crime rates since the early 1990s
better schools
which of the following statements best summarizes the argument of westen and pettit
the growth of the panal system has hidden the extent of economic inequality