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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
sociological imagination
C. Wright Mills. A quality of mind that provides an understanding of ourselves within the context of a larger society
social sciences
Focus on various aspects of human behavior including political science, psych, and psychology
first major technological development in creating a powerful mass media
mid-nineteenth century, with the advent of steam-powered printing presses. Led to widespread distribution of affordable newspapers, magazines, and books.
Second major technological development in creating a powerful mass media
introduction of radio broadcasting in 1920, introduction of television in 1939
the newer and more personalized information technologies, like PCs, CDs, fax machines, video games, etc. Called "new media."
European Industrial Revolution
mid to late 1800s, factories revolutionized societies. More opportunities for work, urbanization, and growth of cities. New problems- poverty, inadequate housing, immigration, crime
August Comte
1798-1903. Father of sociology. Used scientific principles in sociology. Coined positivism.
coined by Comte. the use of observation,comparison, experimentation, and the historical method to analyze society.
Social statics
focuses on social structure, or the relatively stable elements found in every society, coined by Comte
social dynamics
focuses on social change, coined by Comte.
Herbert Spencer
1820-1903. Used ideas from natural science(compared society to an organism/machine) Coined the term, "survival of the fittest."
Karl Marx
1818-1883. economic factors important in determining social life. Capitalistic system responsible for many injustices and inequalities. Bourgeouisie vs. proletariats: bourgeousie- factory owners. proletariats-factory workers.
Emile Durkheim
Concerned with social order. believed that social solidarity, or the social bonds developed by individuals to their society, create social order. Studied suicide sociologically. Linked suicide to social integration.
mechanical solidarity
the social bonds developed by individuals to their society--the type found in simple rurual societies based on tradition and unity
organic solidarity
the social bonds developed by individuals to their society--found in urban societies and based on a complex division of labor and formal organizations
social integration
the extent to which individuals feel they are a meaningful part of society, durkheim.
Max Weber
born into wealth. developed the concept of the Verstehen(understanding). created the concept of the "ideal type", a generalization based on many specific examples.
Coined by Max Weber. Translation- Understanding. sociologists must understand people's feelings, must figure out people's motives, and must figure out why people feel the way that thehy do. Researchers must put themselves in the place of those they study.
Sociology in America
Sociology came of age in America during 20s, 30s, and 40s. Chicago School provided sociology with symbolic interactionism, one of three major theoretical perspectives
Theoretical perspectives
a viewpoint or particular way of looking at things
sets of assumptions and ideas that guide research questions, methods of analysis and interpretation, and the development of theory.
Symbolic Interactionism
one of three major theoretical perspectives, or ways of looking at things. This one views social meaning as arising through the process of social interaction. Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that they attach to the. These meanings derive from social interaction with others. These meanings may be changed or modified through the process of interaction and interpretation. Proponents of this perspective engage in microlevel analysis, which focuses on the day-to-day interactions of individuals and groups in specific social situations. Three major concepts: meaningful symbols, the definition of the situation, and the looking glass self.
Meaningful symbols
Part of the symbolic interactionist perspective. Sounds, objects, colors, and events that represent something other than themselves, and are critical for understanding social interaction. Language is one of the most important and powerful meaningful symbols.
Definition of the Situation
Part of symbolic interactionist perspective. Refers to the idea that people define social reality through a process of give-and-take interaction. Once a definition is established, it shapes all further interactions.
The looking-glass self
Part of symbolic interactionism. Refers to the idea that an individual's self-concept is largely a reflection of how he or she is perceived by other members of society. Society is used as a mirror to reflect a feeling of self-pride, self-doubt, self-worth, or self-loathing.
Structural Functionalism
Views society as a system of interdependent and interrelated parts. Within the overall structure of the system, each part fulfills a specific function, which thereby contributes to the overall functioning of the entire system. Developed from the ideas of Emile Durkheim. Goal is to achieve social equilibrium.
Conflict Perspective
Traced back to Karl Marx. Emerged during the turbulent 60's. Views society as being composed of diverse groups of conflicting values and interests. Groups have different access to wealth, power, prestige. Some preference for quantitative research.
Neoconflict approach
part of the conflict perspectives. social conflict may be a necessary and even functional social process.
Feminist theory
studies, analyzes, and explains social phenomena from a gener-focused perspective.
Inductive reasoning
the use of specific observations to develop a general understanding
deductive reasoning
reasoning that begins with a general understanding or theory that is then tested thru the observation or study of specific situations
the theory building process
Five Steps. Identify and define concepts; create operational definitions; identify relevant variables; form propositional statements; create a theory
identify and define concepts
first step in building a theory. conceptual definition of 'juvenile' might be 'a person who is not legally considered an adult.'
create operational definition
second step in creating a theory. specifies how a concept is measured. 'juvenile' defined as age 7-18.
the extent to which a technique accurately measures what it purports to measure
the consistency of measurement.
identifying variables
third step in creating a theory. represents ways in which concepts vary or differ.
forming propositional statements: correlation vs. causation
A proposition is a statement that interrelates two or more variables. correlation says that two variables are related in such a way that a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other. causation, a change in one causes a change in the other.
exploratory research
answers the question, What?
descriptive research
answers the questions What and How?
explanatory research
answers the questions What How and Why?
Evaluation research
measures the effectiveness of a program. Does it work?
secondary analysis
makes use of existing data and is often used in comparitive/historical studies.
independent variable
brings about a change in the dependent variable.
mead's developmental stages
imitative stage(children imitate others); play stage(anticipatory socialization, pretending to play other social roles); game stage(assume social roles)
Piaget's Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor stage; preoperational stage(2-7 yrs. Begin to be inquisitive, learn reading and math and problem solving); concrete operational stage(7-12 yrs. children can understand their surroundings, but cannot think abstractly.); formal operational stage(adolescence, ability to achieve abstract thought.)
Kohlberg's Moral Development
people in formal operational stage reach a conventional level of moral development, using a much broader set of criteria than just their personal wants or needs to determine rigt or wrong. Postconventional level of moral reasoning, adults ponder abstract ethical ideals that allow them to question the status quo.
Erik Erikson's developmental stages that focus on a series of crises that must be resolved.
20-40, young adult--intimacy vs. isolation

40-60, middle adult--generatiity vs. stagnation

65+, late adult--integrity vs. despair
total institutions
where both desocialization and resocialization occur. Ex: mental houses, monastary, prison
Degradation ceremonies
the actual act in which you're separated from society. Ex: criminal trial.