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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The rules and guidelines followed in sociological research.
Knowledge based on empirical evidence gained through direct, systematic observation.
A set of interrelated propositions, or statements, that attempt to explain some phenomenon.
The use of specific observations to develop a general understanding.
Inductive reasoning
Reasoning that begins with a general understanding or theory that is then tested through the observation or study of specific situations.
Deductive reasoning
An abstract idea or general thought.
Defining a concept through the use of other concepts
conceptual definition
A definition that specifies how a concept is measured.
operational definition
The extent to while a technique accurately measures what it purports to measure.
The consistency of measurement.
A construct that represents ways in which concepts vary or differ.
A statement tat interrelated two or more variables.
A measure indicating that two variables are related in such a way that a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other.
A relationship in which a change in one variable creates a concomitant change in another variable.
Propositional statements about the relationshsips between the concepts or variables under study.
The specific goals or purpose of a research project.
research objectives
Research that attempts to answer the question "what"?
exploratory research
Research that answers the questions "what" and "how"
descriptive research
Research that attempts to explain social phenomena by answering the questions "what" "how" and "why"
explanatory research
Research that measures tha effectiveness of a program
evaluation research
A research design that emphasizes the use of numbers and statistics to analyze and explain social events and human behavior.
quantitative research design
The analysis of existing data.
Secondary analysis
A research design that attempts to discover a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables.
experimental design
A variable that brings about change in another variable (i.e., the cause)
independent variable
A variable thatt is changed by the independent variable (i.e., the effect).
dependent variable
Variables that may come between the independent and dependent variables in an experiment.
intervening variables
Subjects not exposed to the experimental variable in an experiment.
control group
Subjects exposed to the independent variable in an experiment.
experimental group
The phenomenon where subjects' behavior is influenced by the fact that they are being studied
hawthorne effect
Research using a questionaire or interview to obtain data.
survey research
An entire body of people to which the sociologist would like to generalize research findings.
A segment of the population.
A research design that uses systematic observation and focuses on the meanings people give to their social actions.
qualitative research design
A qualitative technique where the researcher talks with people in an effort to learn as much as possible about them and their behavior.
ethnographic interview
A qualitative method in which the researcher systematically observes the people being studied while participating with them in their activities.
participant observation
Qualitative techniques that involve intensive observation of a particular person, group, or event.
case studies
The use of multiple (usually three) techniques to gather or analyze research data.
Research that examines and analyzes communications.
content analysis
Statistical averages of numerical data.
measures of central tendency
Arithmetic average calculated by adding up all the figures an dividing by the number of cases.
The midpoint; half the scores fall above and half the scores fall below it.
The figure that occurs most often.